Tuesday, August 30, 2011

Can a learned Behavior Turn into Innate one? - DUE FRIDAY SEPTEMBER 2ND

Peer-reviewed publication based ONLY.
Scholarly discuss the publication in addition to quoting it.

57 comments:

  1. According to research done by Scientists Young-Joon Kim1 (entomologist), Dušan Žitňan,C. Giovanni Galizia1 (Neuroscientist), Kook-Ho Cho1 (entomologist) and Michael E. Adams (entomologist and neuroscientist) on Insect Ecdysis, They concluded that the molting and shedding done by insects is a fixed action pattern (innate behavior). Their research proves that the fixed action pattern insects use to shed their exoskeletons is caused by blood-borne ecdysis-triggering hormones (ETH). The sequence is called ecdysis behavior sequence. (Kim, Galizia , Cho, and Adams)

    Their research included Mutant flies with Micro-deletion(small chromosome loss) that causes the fly to have behavior defects; it also cuases the fly die during the first ecdysis. (Kim, Galizia , Cho, and Adams)

    The researchers injected ETH into the mutant flies, allowing them to finish their ecdysis and live. The researchers concluded that the Peptides (Sequence of amino acids)of the fly are important in orchestrating animal behavior because the ETH injected into the fly activated many peptides that allowed the sequence of ecdysis. (Kim, Galizia , Cho, and Adams)

    Conclusion:
    The innate behavior of the fly to shed its exoskeleton(ecdysis)is caused ecdysis-triggering hormones (ETH). These hormones "activate" the peptides causing them to assemble into the chemicals needed for ecdysis.
    (Kim, Galizia , Cho, and Adams)

    Reference:
    Kim, Young-Joon, C. Giovanni Galizia , Kook-Ho Cho, and Michael E Adams. " A Command Chemical Triggers an Innate Behavior by Sequential Activation of Multiple Peptidergic Ensembles." Current Biology (25 July 2006): n. pag. Web. 30 Aug 2011. .

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  2. Innate behavior is behavior which an species is born knowing how to do correctly. On the other hand learned behavior is a behavior, which a member of a species observes and mimics because he finds it to be useful to him. An example of Innate behavior is putting your hands forward when you are falling, this is done to protect your face and more important body parts. You never learned this it was like an instinct. An example of a learned behavior would be learning math because you were not born knowing this but you learned it from someone or something else.

    "A bird that normally preys upon butterflies
    may capture and attempt to eat a brightly colored butterfly, such as a monarch, that
    is completely unpalatable. If this experience is strong enough, or is repeated
    enough times, the bird may learn to associate the bright colors of the monarch
    butterfly with its bad taste, and so will not prey on those butterflies anymore.
    Interestingly enough, this phenomenon may also bring a benefit to other butterflies
    that resemble the bad tasting monarch, as birds will also bypass them as prey items
    due to their physical appearance. This, and other types of mimicry, will be covered
    in a future lesson." In this quote from the science department at the University of Idaho it says that predators of the butterfly that eat the foul tasting monarch (brightly colored) butterfly are likely not to eat it again due to its very foul taste (for some predators it takes more experiences to instill this in them). It says that because of this birds do not prey on butterflies that resemble the monarch as often. This is like the experiment we read about over how scarlet king snake mimics the coral snake. The king snake is non poisonous and the coral snake is poisonous. The king snake mimics the coral snake because it noticed that the coral snake would get attacked a lot less because of its colors which predators had learned to associate with danger. Mimicry is an example of a learned behavior turned into an innate one, so I do believe that a learned behavior can turn into an innate one.

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  3. To me I do feel that it is possible due to the fact that I believe in evolution and that we adapted to what we learn from our parents so that we do not make their mistakes. For example if parents that had a problem with finding there house decided to pick a landmark and use that as a guide and as we got older they would show us that landmark to make sure we knew our wasy home, so I feel it's the same way with animals it becomes an instinct like when babies cry to get attention. It's all instincts.

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  4. “Innate behavior is genetically programmed.” In other words, an innate behavior is something that an organism doesn’t have to learn. For example, when a sea turtle hatches, it already knows it has to go toward the water. “Learning can be defined as a persistent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience.” A learned behavior is the exact opposite of an innate behavior, when an organism learns from experience. Once a learned behavior is displayed in several generations that behavior may become programmed in the animal’s genes, therefore becoming an innate behavior. So, yes, a learned behavior can turn into an innate one.

    Meyer, John, R. (2006, April 3). Elements of Behavior. Retrieved August 30, 2011, from NC State University website: http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/course/ent425/tutorial/Behavior/index.html

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  5. No, a learned behavior connote become an innate behavior because innate behaviors are hardwired into the nervous system which means you are born with them therefore they cannot be learned. An example of a learned behavior is a dog sitting when it is given the command. it has learned this through trail and error like when it sits when it is given the command it receives a treat and when it doesn't sit on command it doesn't receive a treat. An example of an innate behavior is a bird knowing how to make a nest.

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  6. I believe that a learned behavior cannot be turned into an innate behavior. I have come to this conclusion because when a baby is born it does not have any knowledge of its parents past experiences. Which intern leads me to believe that the baby does not have any knowledge of the parents learned behaviors.

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  7. Behavior is what animals do. It can be defined more precisely as an internally directed system of adaptive activities that facilitate survival and reproduction. Any behavior we can observe by watching an animal is overt behavior. In insects, this usually includes responses to external stimuli as well as spontaneous activities that are related to the animal's internal (physiological) needs. Ethologists use the term "drive" (hunger drive, etc.) to describe motivational urges that compel animals to behave as they do. Insects also appear to have internal "drives" for dispersal or migration as well as "drives" to complete stages in development such as constructing a nest or spinning a cocoon. So yes, in general, overt behavior may be classified as innate, learned, or complex.

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  11. I belive that a learned behavior can not turn in to a innate behavior. A innate behavior is something that u dont learn but just acquire that skill/behavior at birth. A learned behavior is a behavior you gain during your lifetime based on experience. You may also learn a behavior from your parents. However you cant be born knowing your parents past experience. You learn that(learning behavior). Also innate behaviors are "determined by the hard wiring of your nervous system". Learned behaviors can not be hard wired into your nervous system because you learn them after you are born. So i believe that a learned behavior can not turn into a innate behavior.


    http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/I/InnateBehavior.html

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  12. lorenzo baroni hbio p.2August 31, 2011 at 2:02 PM

    I think that a learned behavior cannot turn into an innate behavior. For example if you teach a monkey to open a jar to get a bannana dosen't mean that it's offspring will know how to open the jar to get a bannana. Therefore a learned behavior cannot turn into an innate behavior.

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  13. A behavior that is performed correctly by all individuals of a species, even if they have no previous experience with the behavior, is called an innate behavior.In my opinion learned behaviors can turn into an innate behavior, because over time animals become adapted to new changes,so what you once had to learn will become something your born knowing, for example, i found an article that said: Behavior is actually more complicated than "innate" or "learned." Most behaviors are a mix of the two, neither completely innate nor entirely learned. For instance, some innate behaviors--such as flying in insects--can be perfected over time and through experience. Locusts know how to fly from birth, but they get better at it with practice, eventually learning to expend less energy to accomplish the same flight. The same is certainly true of foals, born with the knowledge of how to walk; it still takes time for the foal to learn how to operate its legs.

    http://www.springerlink.com/content/92167187682u1243/
    http://www.ehow.com/about_6668264_innate-learned-animal-behavior_.html

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  14. First i have to understand that innate behaviors, are behaviors that a member of a species is born with, and performs a task correctly without having any past experience about it. While, a learned behavior is when a member of the species is taught a survival skill whether it is through habituation, imprinting or conditioning. I learned that our brains contain something called basal ganglia.

    Here's the link for the model that shows where it is located http://web.mit.edu/bcs/graybiel-lab/publications/CurrBio_Graybiel.pdf
    At this website focus on the graph with the caption.

    In another article; ROLE OF BASAL GANGLIA IN CONTROL OF INNATE MOVEMENTS, LEARNED BEHAVIOR
    AND COGNITION A HYPOTHESIS

    "The basal ganglia is only a part of the neural systems that controls our behavior"
    Basically the document relates that basal ganglia, working together with other systems in our body; control what behaviors are innate behaviors and what behaviors are learned. Through a series of connections from the basal ganglia, to the cerebral cortex, and thalamus etc. They work to together to create the "fixed action generators" and the "learned action generators" in the body. Knowing this, I think that it is possible for learned behaviors to become innate behaviors if the environment requires it to be.Then it all comes down to the animals bodily make up. This makes me think of evolution of animals which suggests the changing of a species to adapt to there environment.

    Sites:
    ROLE OF BASAL GANGLIA IN CONTROL OF INNATE MOVEMENTS, LEARNED BEHAVIOR
    AND COGNITION A HYPOTHESIS
    Okihide Hikosaka
    Laboratory of Neural Control
    National Institute for Physiological Sciences Myodaijicho, Okazaki 444, Japan

    The basal ganglia,Primer magazine; by:Ann M. Graybiel

    http://web.mit.edu/bcs/graybiel-lab/publications/CurrBio_Graybiel.pdf
    http://lsr-web.net/Assets/NEIPages/OkihideHikosaka/pdfs/OHBasalGangliaChapter1994.pdf

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  15. An innate behavior cannot be a learned behavior because, it is performed by all individual species even if they have no experience with the behavior. It's like a stimulus that triggers the nervous system into telling the species when to respond. It can be influenced by the enviroment. It's not something that you can just learn, it works as if like a computer. " It's as if your saying innate behavior is programmed into your brain." An example of an innate behavior would be, REFLEXES: If you touch a stove that is really hot, before you can remove your hand something triggers the nervous system making you act quickly before any serious damage can happen. That is an innate behavior, you don't learn to do it instead you just act on it.

    Citation: Imprinting: the interaction of learned and innate behavior: I. Development and generalization.
    Jaynes, Julian
    Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, Vol 49(3), Jun 1956, 201-206. doi: 10.1037/h0042705

    I think that alot of species and organsims in their ecosystem show alot of innate behaviors. Sometimes it might look as if it was learned, but if you really took the time and saw one show a response with how they reacted, you would quickly without any second thoughts know it was an innated behavior.

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  16. An innate behavior is an action that does not need to be taught and you are born with. A learned behavior is an action you have seen someone do repeatedly. And I argue that a learned behavior cannot turn into an innate behavior, It may cause an innate behavior to develope but will not become one because its not something natural that you do or find for yourself. For example in the article i read it states "To demonstrate that an acquired drive (fear or anxiety) had been established, the animals were taught a new habit without further shocks. The door (previously always open) was closed. The only way that the door could be opened was by rotating a little wheel, which was above the door, a fraction of a turn. Under these conditions, the animals exhibited trial-and-error behavior and gradually learned to escape from the white compartment by rotating the wheel. If conditions were changed so that only pressing a bar would open the door, wheel turning extinguished, and a second new habit (bar pressing) was learned."This is an example of what may happen, So I disagree a learned behavior may not become an innate one.

    My reference was:
    http://psycnet.apa.org/index.cfm?fa=search.defaultSearchForm
    by Miller, Neal E.
    Journal of Experimental Psychology

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  17. I believe that a learned behavior can NOT turn into a innate behavior. The reason being is because a learned behavior is something you learn while observing others, while a innate behavior is something you have genetically gained. For example, if your parents learn how to juggle, it is a learned behavior as obviously they observed someone therefore learning it. As she learned it, was not giving it genetically, it is a talent.So, with juggling not being in her genetics there is no possible way that it can be given down.

    Site: http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/course/ent425/tutorial/Behavior/index.html

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  18. In my opinion learned behavior cannot turn into innate behavior. By definition, innate behavior is actions performed correctly that all organisms of a species perform without prior knowlege. Quite simply, they are born with it. In contrast, learned behavior is change in an animals behavior resulting from experience. I have read that both types of behaviors are closely knitted together, but there are striking differences.

    In Anne Jane Tierney's paper she disagrees with the notion "that specific genes will directly program behaviors" and agrees with the concept that "learning requires a larger, more flexible learning system than does innate behavior." What I understood was that innate behavior is deeply rooted within our system, and very directly so with that of our nervous system and brain. However, learning behaviors requires a much more extensive system.

    This led me to believe that the reason natural selection does favor learning as to innate behavior is because there is too much learning to be done that cannot be stored into our systems. Since adaptation is something that occurs constantly and is never predictable, possibly innate behaviors are actions that can be completely performed in any kind of situation. However, the learned behaviors are ones that vary depending on an organisms particular situation. That is what led me to believe that learned behaviors cannot turn into innate behaviors.

    The evolution of learned and innate behavior: Contributions from genetics and neurobiology to a theory of behavorial evolution. By Anne Jane Tierney, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada ; Animal Learning and Behavior 1986, 14 (4), 339 348

    http://resources.metapress.com/pdf-preview.axd?code=92167187682u1243&size=largest

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  19. First of all, innate behavior is "A behavior that is performed correctly by all individuals of a species, even if they have no previous experience with the behavior." So what this basically means is that for example when sea turtles hatch they already know what do do, which is walk to the shore of the beach and swim and we know that they've never done it before. Which is called innate behavior. Another example of an innate behavior is also shown in the Biology textbook (Chapter 3 pg.54). The FAP(also known as fixed action pattern is an innate behavior, the goose's eg-retrieving response is known as an innate behavior.
    Now learned behavior on the other hand is a behavior that is learned from others or in the case of animals,it is learned from the group of animals they live with.
    In conclusion i think that learned behavior may not turn into innate behavior but in some cases over a long period of time a learned behavior could become an innate behavior, for example if you teach a group how to do something and they pass it on eventually this trait will become an innate behavior. Maybe in some cases it wont happen, like the baby sea turtles it might have not been possible to pass a learned behavior of getting to the shore after hatching,maybe this behavior had always been there,which we know is an innate behavior.
    citation:Imprinting: the interaction of learned and innate behavior: I. Development and generalization.
    Jaynes, Julian
    Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, Vol 49(3), Jun 1956, 201-206. doi: 10.1037/h0042705

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  20. Can a learned behavior turn into an innate one?

    In my opinion, no, a learned behavior cannot be turned into an innate one. I state this opinion because a learned behavior is one that was memorized over time; it took a while. On the other hand, an innate behavior is one that is done corectly on the first attempt by an organism without previous knowledge or experience; it is automatic. For example, puppies know how to chew when they are born; they do not need to "learn" it or witness any type of demonstrative process. Something even as simple as breathing is an innate behavior.It is completely natural. We did not have to "learn" how to breathe.

    Pets Smart Training. Petsmart Store Support Group, 2007. Web. 31 Aug. 2011. .

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  21. Alex Valdivia HBIO P.2August 31, 2011 at 6:21 PM

    As we all know a learned behavior is a behavior we discover over time and learn to mimic through experience. For example habituation is something we learn to do it is not an intsinct. An innate behavior is one we are born knowing it is immprinted in our genes. Like hibernation is to a bear. But no a learned behavior cannot turn into an innate behavior because our innate behaviors are in out genes and just because we learn something doesnt mean it is neccisarily be passed on to our offspring.
    "A study of imprinting phenomena in 18 domestic neonate chicks showed that the following response to a moving object was part of a matrix of responses that included vocalization, attention and approaching. The reaction appeared suddenly within a few minutes of exposure and develops with gradual improvement over the first four days. Innate preferences appear, some objects providing better cues than others. There is a generalization decrement, strange objects being followed less well than those to which the bird was trained. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)"

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  22. Based on the information and research I read I believe that innate and learned behavior have a difference between them, but a very little one. In the article I read there was a lot of questioning about what is the difference between innate and learned behavior. Quote: " The question of what is called "innate" and what is called "acquired" in the behavior of animals including man, is one that appears regularly and persistently as a problem."
    At first I was positive that a learned behavior could not become a innate behavior, since something you acquired at some point in your life from something or someone else could not turn into something you were born knowing. After reading this article I began to think otherwise. An organism can learn something throughout it's life time which gave it a really good advantage in survival and then later it mates and the offspring is born already knowing this learned behavior, therefore it is an innate behavior.


    http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=H392OLiJekMC&oi=fnd&pg=PA125&dq=elements+of+behavior+innate+and+learned&ots=52buX3oQuX&sig=ZeiyKkpxCvtMEW9ozqRTcGmyU6I#v=onepage&q=elements%20of%20behavior%20innate%20and%20learned&f=false

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  23. A learned behavior is a behavior that was observed by an individual that they find it to be beneficial to them in some way. While a innate behavior is a certain skill that just comes naturally to the animal and is beneficial for the animals survival. I do not believe that a learned behavior can evolve to an innate behavior. Although both behaviors may have some similar qualities the have many differences.You cant develop a particular trait that your parents where good at. What your parents may have learned to do as the masters of that particular trait you will not inherit that but you may learn that behavior from your parents.
    If both your parents know how to ride a bicycle you will not be born with that previous knowledge but you will learn that trait later in life.
    http://www.springerlink.com/content/x46g146267160827/
    http://animals.howstuffworks.com/animal-facts/animal-info6.htm

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  24. Eden Mesfin hbio per 7 said…

    No, a learned behavior cannot turn into innate behavior. Innate behavior genetically determined non-environmental input and no learning involved. Innate behavior is a behavior that is performed correctly by all individual of a species, even if they have no previous experience with the behavior .Smiling and crying in human newborns and birds laying egg in the nest are something that is performed naturally. Another example of innate behavior can be the reflex actions in human body; it is a performance, which human have no control over. On the other hand, learned behavior develops through experience due to environmental stimuli. Saying that, hunting and gathering their food is something that animals learn from their parents. Therefore, I believe that learned behavior cannot turn to innate behavior.

    Sites
    www.sci.uidho.edu/biologynet
    www.dailypuppy.com
    www.cilck4biology.info

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  25. Albino rats were trained to go from a white compartment through an open door into a black compartment in order to escape from electric shock. "To demonstrate that an acquired drive (fear or anxiety) had been established, the animals were taught a new habit without further shocks. The door (previously always open) was closed. The only way that the door could be opened was by rotating a little wheel, which was above the door, a fraction of a turn. Under these conditions, the animals exhibited trial-and-error behavior and gradually learned to escape from the white compartment by rotating the wheel. If conditions were changed so that only pressing a bar would open the door, wheel turning extinguished, and a second new habit (bar pressing) was learned. Control experiments demonstrated that the learning of the new habits was dependent upon having received moderately strong electric shocks during the first stages of training." 18 references. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)Studies of fear as an acquirable drive: I. Fear as motivation and fear-reduction as reinforcement in the learning of new responses.

    Miller, Neal E.
    Journal of Experimental Psychology, Vol 38(1), Feb 1948, 89-101. doi: 10.1037/h0058455

    In recent years, ethologists and psychologists have become increasingly interested in the evolution of the ability to learn and in the relationship between innate and learned behavior. However, recent discussions of behavioral evolution have not adequately incorporated contemporary knowledge of nervous system development and structure. Most discussions are based on the following assumptions: (1) That innate behaviors are programmed by specific genes; (2) that learning requires a larger, more flexible nervous system than does innate behavior; and (3) that the ability to learn is phylogenetically more recent than innate behavior. This paper reviews information about nervous system development and the neurobiology of plasticity and learning that questions the validity of these assumptions. It is hypothesized that behavioral flexibility is phylogenetically primitive and that learned behavioral adaptations may commonly precede innate forms of the same behaviors. The role of genetic assimilation in behavioral evolution is discussed.

    "i think from readings and articles that learned behaviors can be turned into innate behaviors because of evolution once an animal learns a thing over and over again evolution takes place so the next century of these animals or humans have it as an innate behavior and they now about it when they are born so my final conclusion is that yes a learned behavior can be turned into an innate behavior."

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  26. Jordan Gheiler P.7 BIOAugust 31, 2011 at 7:12 PM

    @Johana Siboret HBIO, P2

    I read the same article and disagree. innate behaviors are behaviors that are already known at birth, like a sea turtle knows to dig out the sand from the nest and knows when it's night so it's a safer time to climb out. Innate behaviors are something that is crucial to survival. Learned behaviors are like tricks of the trade, something that make's what you are doing even easier. So if an animal needs to jump from branch to branch and realizes if it flaps its arms it goes farther, it can be taught to other animals but it would not be known at birth. Innate behaviors are sometimes like breathing, we cant control if we breathe or not but we just do. Like how sea turtles dig out of the nests, they don't have enough time to learn how to dig themselves out or else they will die in the nest. Although I do believe that sometimes the learned behavior may die out if none of the other animals can mimic the first one.

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  27. An innate behavior is a behavior is a behavior that is instinctive. Where as a learned behavior is a behavior that must be taught to you. I am willing to say that a learned behavior cannot become an innate behavior. When I read the article by Ann M. Graybiel she said that “All innate behaviors are triggered by the basal ganglia.” Which then got me thinking what triggers learned behaviors. So I did additional research that said that learned behaviors are controlled by the Hypothalamus. This leads me to the conclusion that if learned behaviors and innate behaviors are controlled by different parts of the body that one can never become the other.
    http://web.mit.edu/bcs/graybiel-lab/publications/CurrBio_Graybiel.
    http://www.brainwaves.com/brain_basics.html

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  28. Gabriel Casella P1G7August 31, 2011 at 9:09 PM

    Innate behavior is any behavior which did not require cognition or consciousness to perform. I believe that Learned behavior can become Innate behavior. For example, like all things; Innate behavior has a beginning/origin and the current logical solution to this is Learned behavior that turned into Innate behavior. Learned behavior that contains actions which are essential to the survival of a certain species in the environment may be incorporated into the genetics of that species through Evolution/Natural selection and mutation of the genes, to create a generation better adapted to that certain environment increasing the chances of survival of the species as a whole.

    “All elements that can be innate, however,
    will be innate. Instinct costs less than learned behavior, in
    the currency of genetic information (Williams, 1966, p. 83).”

    And as such Learned behavior will become Innate behavior to “save” in genetic complexity. Learned behavior requires higher mental function and Learned behavior will be incorporated into Innate behaviors to bypass this, creating a automatic response, for example FAP.

    Sources:
    “The evolution of learned and innate behavior: Contributions from genetics and neurobiology to a theory of behavioral evolution” written by: Ann Jane Tierney

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  29. This comment has been removed by the author.

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  30. No because a "learned behavior is one that modified by experience and and innate one is developmentally fixed". If for example a innate behavior is playing baseball very well then if it turns into a learned behavior that means it will be passed on from the offspring. The offspring will not know how to play baseball immediately from birth,even with stimulus, and many leaned behaviors are pre determined.

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  31. i believe that a learned behavior cannot become an innate one. it is common sense that the only way that offspring can learn something is that if it had learned it from the parent.
    jonathan roberts hbio period 7

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  32. I do not believe that a learned behavior can become an innate behavior even with evolution in place because innate behaviors come from the "hard wiring" of an organisms nervous system. You are born with your innate behaviors, you won't naturally know how to do something because your previous generations learned how to do so.

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  33. Jeffrey Urquhart Per 3September 1, 2011 at 2:04 PM

    A learned behavior cannot be turned into a innate behavior because I innate behavior is a behavior your born with while a learned behavior is a behavior you learn. A innate hehavior is a behavior you get from genetics. An example of a innate behavior is "hibernation of bears" an example of a learned behavior is "teaching a dog to roll over by giving a treat". These are the reasons why a learned behavior cannot be turned into a innate behavior.

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  34. Learned behvior is defined as a persistent change in behavior, that so far occurs as a result of experience. Since a newborn bird never had prior experience, its first behaviors will be innate."In general, learned behaviors will always be:

    Nonheritable -- acquired only through observation or experience
    Extrinsic -- absent in animals raised in isolation from others
    Permutable -- pattern or sequence may change over time
    Adaptable -- capable of modification to suit changing conditions
    Progressive -- subject to improvement or refinement through practice" according tohttp://www.cals.ncsu.edu/course/ent425/tutorial/Behavior/index.html and students that say learned cannot be turned into inate.
    This misstatement could be proven simply with the example of resting. Us humans are bond to rest at anytime of the day because it's innstictive. Yet the quantity and when we sleep is dependent on our surroundings. Therefore, some (not all) learned behavoirs can turn innate.

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  35. Devin Gamboa HBIO Per 2September 1, 2011 at 3:35 PM

    I believe that learned behavior cannot become innate to a certain extent. A animal might learn something that helps it a great deal in survival. This can be passed down from Mother/Father to the offspring. This is due to the enviorment making the animal use this learned behavior everyday.
    "Heredity and enviorment are not antithetical, nor can they expediently be separated."

    Something like being able to write is due to memory which can't be passed down through genes.
    Unlike being right handed thats a gene you get from your parents being right handed.

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  36. An innate behavior is genetically programmed. In other words the organism is born knowing how to do that behavior correctly. Learned behaviors can turn into innate behaviors. This happens when several generations learn how to do the same behavior. Then over time this behavior was in these organism's genes, which it is now a innate behavior.

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  37. Carla Segovia HBIO P4September 1, 2011 at 3:50 PM

    Innate behavior is a behavior that comes naturally to one, even if one had no previous experience with it. For example, when birds hatch from their eggs, they were not taught, it came naturally to them for survival. Learned behavior is a behavior that was observed and they find that it benefits them in some way. For instance, a dog learns to sit because it is pushed into a sitting position and given a treat. In my opinion, no, learned behavior can not turn into innate behavior. Learned behaviors helps make what one is doing easier and is also better for one. At birth, one wouldn't be able to grasp knowledge past generations learned. Also, by reading some of the discussions posted on this blog, I find that many believe that the organisms can adapt or that through evolution, learned behavior can turn into innate behavior. As it says in the article, "The genetic fixation of adaptive learning abilities depends not only on the direction and intensityof selection, but also on the availability of appropriate genetic variation in the population, and this is a random factor." In other words, it requires steady and imperative particular pressure to evolve; it would not be expected to pop up randomly.

    http://www.springerlink.com/content/92167187682u1243/

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  38. Vanessa Estrada, second period.September 1, 2011 at 3:51 PM

    As I've researched, I have found many opinions on whether a learned behavior can become an innate one. I've come to the conclusion that a learned behavior cannot become an innate one. This is because an innate behavior is inherited to the offspring by the parent; a learned behavior is not yet in the body's nervous system. Therefore, the body wouldn't be able to know how to react in a certain situation if it has not been taught to the offspring, or if it is not an innate behavior.

    http://www.springerlink.com/content/9216718768u1243/

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  39. Innate behavior is developmentally fixed. Despite differing environments, all
    individuals that can exhibit the behavior do exhibit the behavior. This does not mean
    the environment does not play a role, innate behaviors are triggered by a stimulus
    which must occur within the context of the animal’s environment. Learned behaviors
    are modified by experience.
    There is no hard-and-fast distinction between the two, many learned behaviors
    have a strongly pre-determined chronology (I.e., language learning) and many “innate”
    behaviors are improved by experience (I.e., parasitoid foraging). Most animal
    behaviorists view them as two ends of a continuum.
    A fixed action pattern is a sequence of innate behavioral acts that is essentially
    unchangeable and usually conducted to completion once it is started. It is triggered by
    a sensory environmental stimulus called a sign stimulus. Because the animal responds
    to the sign stimulus, rather than the environment as a whole, the animal may be
    “tricked” by signals that are out of their usual context. The concept of a fixed action
    pattern can be criticized because it implies that all members of a species must behave
    exactly the same way. In fact, even “fixed action patterns” may show variation among
    members of the same species. A modal action pattern is a pattern is a sequence of
    behavioral events that is common to all members of a species to the extent to which
    different members of a species tend to perform the behavior in a recognizably similar
    fashion.
    All behaviors are influenced by both genes and the environment. The extent to
    which genes control the manifestation of a behavior differs from one behavior to the
    next. All genes, including those whose expression underlies an innate behavior, require
    an environment to be expressed. In general, invertebrates show much more
    “stereotyped” (i.e., characterized innate behaviors) behavior than vertebrates, and
    within vertebrates, “stereotypical” behavior is more typical of fish and birds than
    mammals. Even humans have some behaviors that are essentially fixed action patterns,
    such as sneezes.
    Two, largely parallel, systems influence and control animal behavior.
    – Nervous System: generally, acts more quickly, response is more flexible.

    http://online.hhu.edu.cn/EnglishCourses/Behavior.pdf

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  41. I believe that a learned behavior cannot be turned into an innate behavior mainly because a learned behavior is something that you learn observing others. From their you learn from them, by observing them, it's not genetically transferred to you. An innate behavior is something that you get from your parents, therefore, it leads me to believe the answer is no. When an animal is born it has no knowledge of his/ her parents past experience or anything of the sort, this leads me to believe that my final answer is no, a learned behavior cannot be turned into an innate one.

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  42. Zachary Mallet Honors Biology Period 4

    Innate behavior is the inherent tendency of a living organism toward a a certain behavior.Innate behavior is developmentally fixed behavior. Despite the different environment, situation, or variable, the all organism of the species will exhibit this behavior. While learned behaviors are changed through experience and not all of the species will exhibit the behavior. How this would work is that an organism will learn a certain behavior then that will give that organism and advantage in survival. The effect of that will be the organism will live long enough to reproduce and pass on the knowledge. Therefore if it passes through enough generation it will become an innate behavior. A learned behavior that has vital to the survival of an organism and will give it a chance to pass it on, that's only if the behavior added into the genetics of that species through the natural selection and survival of the fittest. Through the mutation of the genes,then the species as a group will have more chance of survival and therefore pass on more behaviors that will become innate.


    http://www.springerlink.com/content/q60h810365tk1263/

    http://lsr-web.net/Assets/NEIPages/OkihideHikosaka/pdfs/OHBasalGangliaChapter1994.pdf

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  43. An innate behavior is a natural behavior in an animal that has no previous experience, and a learned behavior is a behavior that you have to learn to do. This is why a learned behavior cant turn into an innate behavior because a learned behavior isn't in the organisms genes they cant react to some situations unless they are taught to do it.

    http://www.springerlink.com/content/9216718768u1243/

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  44. Sebastian Gonzalez Honors Biology P.4

    I think that innate behavior is mainly subject to genes and not learned. As many people say "you are not born knowing." I think this is partly untrue. I think this because i think we are born knowing how to breath. But this is true for some aspects for example riding a bike and learning how to play a guitar. Innate behavior is based on what a previous organisms had mutated and for the better, which is why the organisms with the mutation today are still alive and the others not. I think mutatation is responsible for most innate behavior

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  45. ANDREINA DIAZ HBIO P4

    "It is hypothesized that behavioral flexibility is phylogenetically primitive and that learned behavioral adaptations may commonly precede innate forms of the same behaviors. The role of genetic assimilation in behavioral evolution is discussed." I agree with this statment because you first have to learn how to do something so it can later become second nature for you. For example when your small you learn how to tie your shoe and now yuo can probably do it with your eyes closed. An innate behavior is one that you are born knowing for example breathing or for most crying but other thins don't come as easy as those yet we still LEARN how to do them fast. What i am trying to say is that if you master a trait or something simple it will most likly become innate.
    http://www.springerlink.com/content/92167187682u1243/

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  46. Gabriella Izzo Honors Biology P.4

    An innate behavior is a natural way an animal reacts or behaves to certain happenings. And a learned behavior is a way of learning certain skills that may take practice. For example, an innate behavior could be a baby crying, and a learning behavior could be tying your shoes.

    I don't think a learned behavior can turn into an innate behavior.

    Innate behavior begins at birth. You are either born with it or you are not. Innate behavior cannot be learned.

    According to http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/course/ent425/tutorial/Behavior/index.html, innate behaviors is inherited. "Since innate behavior is encoded in DNA, it is subject to genetic change through mutation, recombination, and natural selection."

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  47. Isabella Carrasco, Period 4September 1, 2011 at 5:58 PM

    Yes. I believe that once a person or animal has been conditioned to a habit of some sort, their responses will become automatic and natural. According to Julian James and his study on chicks, innate behaviors develop almost immediately.

    "A study of imprinting phenomena in 18 domestic neonate chicks showed that the following response to a moving object was part of a matrix of responses that included vocalization, attention and approaching. The reaction appeared suddenly within a few minutes of exposure and develops with gradual improvement over the first four days. Innate preferences appear, some objects providing better cues than others. There is a generalization decrement, strange objects being followed less well than those to which the bird was trained."

    Sheldon Kennon, however, did a study on innate behaviors developed over time in children due to needs, satisfaction, and dissatisfaction.

    "Psychological need theories offer much explanatory potential for behavioral scientists, but there is considerable disagreement and confusion about what needs are and how they work. A 2-process model of psychological needs is outlined, viewing needs as evolved functional systems that provide both (a) innate psychosocial motives that tend to impel adaptive behavior and (b) innate experiential requirements that when met reinforce adaptive behavior and promote mental health. The literature is reviewed to find support for 8 hypotheses derived from this model: that certain basic psychosocial motives are present at birth; that successful enactment of these motives supports the functioning and wellness of all humans; that individual differences in these motives develop in childhood; that these strong motive dispositions tend to produce the satisfying experiences they seek; that motive dispositions do not moderate the effect of motive-corresponding need satisfaction on well-being but do moderate the effect of assigned goal-type on rated self-concordance for those goals; that need dissatisfaction and need satisfaction correspond to the separable behavioral-motive and experiential-reward aspects of needs; and that motives and needs can become decoupled when chronic dissatisfaction of particular requirements warps or depresses the corresponding motives, such that the adaptive process fails in its function. Implications for self-determination theory and motive disposition theory are considered."

    In conclusion, innate behaviors can be established by patterns of behavior that meet a person's needs, and their level of satisfaction regarding those needs being met. For animals, innate behaviors are less satisfaction based, but more on survival needs. Innate behaviors can also be created from training, such as habits, conditioning, and a positive outcome with the behavior.

    Imprinting: the interaction of learned and innate behavior: I. Development and generalization.
    Jaynes, Julian
    Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, Vol 49(3), Jun 1956, 201-206. doi: 10.1037/h0042705

    Integrating behavioral-motive and experiential-requirement perspectives on psychological needs: A two process model.
    Sheldon, Kennon M.
    Psychological Review, Jul 25, 2011, No Pagination Specified. doi: 10.1037/a0024758

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  48. maria ramirez hbio p7September 1, 2011 at 6:05 PM

    i believe that a learned behavior cannot become a new one just for the many reasons that people have stated already, firstly, the innate behaviors and the learned behaviors are controlled by two different parts of the body so two could not become one. maybe over time the learned behaviors have become a nessecity to survive so its become innate but that would probably take a long time to happen. another reason why i believe a learned behavior cannot become innate is because the learned behaviors are exactly that, learned. your parents learned it on their own and their parents learned it on their own and so on, you arent born and walk over to clean yourself, you *learn* that at a later age

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  49. Kevin Acosta HBIO P7September 1, 2011 at 6:05 PM

    As I said before in my past comment it is impossible for learned behaviors to be turned into innate behaviors because innate behaviors are hardwired into the brain of the animal and learned behaviors are taught or acquired through trail and error. Of course there are exceptions to every rule for example if an animal were to learn a certain behavior or lifestyle that helped it survive better then natural selection would kick in and instill that learned behavior into he animals hard wired nervous system. So in conclusion i think that YES some learned behaviors can become innate behaviors but for the most part that is unlikely to happen.

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  50. Kevin Acosta HBIO P7September 1, 2011 at 6:06 PM

    citation http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/course/ent425/tutorial/Behavior/index.html

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  51. http://www.dailypuppy.com/articles/what-is-innate-and-learned-animal-behavior/d186275d-ceea-51da-3eeb-56288e7e4f7f

    From the source up above, "learned behavior can eventually lead to innate behaviors through trial and error because due to so much practice the process won't be hard anymore for the animal to do."

    For example, A puppy is very playful and wants to be played with or petted. When you want to play fetch with dog it will notice the stick, ball, or Frisbee in the air but then it would just stay put as if you didn't throw the ball yet and eventually the dog will finally get the ball from noticing what you wanted it to do, it learned this through trial and error."

    So My answer to the question is Yes, Learned behaviors can turn into Innate behaviors.

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  52. By definition an innate behavior is performed correctly by all individuals of a species, even if they have no previous experience with the behavior.
    In August weismann's germ plasm theory he states that during developement there is a separation of the germinal cells, that contain heritable information, and somatic cells, which carryout all regular body functions and acquired or learned behaviors. Meaning that the aquired behavior learned by the parent will not be passed on to its offspring.

    http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/1520-6696(199504)31:2%3C115::AID-JHBS2300310202%3E3.0.CO;2-K/citedby

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  53. "Behavior is what animals do. It can be defined more precisely as an internally directed system of adaptive activities that facilitate survival and reproduction. Any behavior we can observe by watching an animal is overt behavior. In insects, this usually includes responses to external stimuli as well as spontaneous activities that are related to the animal's internal (physiological) needs. Ethologists use the term "drive" (hunger drive, etc.) to describe motivational urges that compel animals to behave as they do. Insects also appear to have internal "drives" for dispersal or migration as well as "drives" to complete stages in development such as constructing a nest or spinning a cocoon. So yes, in general, overt behavior may be classified as innate, learned, or complex."
    Yes, I do believe that a learned behavior can turn into an innate one. Individuals inherit various behaviors just as they inherit physical traits, since innate behavior is genetically programmed. But I think that because innate behavior is in DNA it can change through mutation, or evolution.

    My source:
    http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/course/ent425/tutorial/Behavior/index.html

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  54. i believe that a learned behavior cannot become an innate because" innate behavior = behavior determined by the "hard-wiring" of the nervous system. It is usually inflexible, a given stimulus triggering a given response. A salamander raised away from water until long after its siblings begin swimming successfully will swim every bit as well as they the very first time it is placed in the water. Clearly this rather elaborate response is "built in" in the species and not something that must be acquired by practice."
    and a learned behavior is "learned behavior = behavior that is more or less permanently altered as a result of the experience of the individual organism"
    so if a learned behavior is learned by the experience of the organism then how would it be wired in the nervous system just because i learn how to ride a bike from my personal experience doesn't mean that my offspring are born with it wired in.
    my source http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/I/InnateBehavior.html

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  55. Lukas Montejo Period 2September 1, 2011 at 8:02 PM

    When I was researching I found these two articles:

    "SINCE LEARNED BEHAVIOR IS INNATE, AND VICE VERSA, WHAT NOW?"
    By Verplanck, William S.

    Psychological Review, Vol 62(2), Mar 1955, 139-144.

    Abstract:
    It is concluded that no meaningful distinction can be drawn between learned and innate behavior. Accepting this, it is shown that the work of Ethologists on species-specific behaviors compliments the efforts of workers in Comparative Psychology. It is indicated that much can be gained by both groups from giving closer attention to the methodology of each other. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)


    My Source: http://psycnet.apa.org/index.cfm?fa=buy.optionToBuy&id=1955-08347-001

    My opinion: i think the answer is that a learned behavior can be turned into an innate behavior because if an organism learns something new it could be inherited by its baby. For example if your dad learned a lot about science you might inherit a craving to learn science or you might like it more than any other subject.

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  56. A learned behavior, something that you learn to do based on past experience can become an Innate one.An innate behavior is something that you are born knowing how to do. According to Ann Jane Tierney, "Canalized behaviors may commonly be preceded evolutionarily by learned forms of the behaviors. An adaptive and persistent learned behavior may acquire a genetic base through the selection of mutations
    or the genetic assimilation of latent genetic variability
    which enhances the probability that the behavior
    will occur in an appropriate fashion.....Genetic assimilation occurred when these alleles
    became so numerous in certain individuals that the
    abnormal phenotype was produced genetically, with no
    further need for the original environmental stimulus." She goes on to say , "Canalized behaviors are genetically programmed and evolve by natural selection in a
    manner identical to the evolution of morphological
    characteristics." With that being said I come to my conclusion that a learned behavior can become an innate behavior after generations of repeating the learned behavior , until it starts to get imprinted in the genes, but can only be passed on through natural selection.
    References: http://www.springerlink.com/content/92167187682u1243/

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  57. ON BEHALF OF DONOVAN BROWN!!!
    Innate behavior is something known at birth such as breathing,crying, etc. Learned behavior is a behavior learned by an organism so that it can adapt or perfrom an action. While innate and learned behavior are two different things, can learned become innate. I beelive that a learned behavior may become innate if performed constantly over many generations it may become an innate behavior.

    KZ Lorenz - 1950 - psycnet.apa.org
    http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/1952-05966-013

    RM Church - The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 1957 - psycnet.apa.org
    http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/abn/54/2/163/

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