Wednesday, August 31, 2011

Applied ethology - DUE FRIDAY SEPTEMBER 2, 2011

Read the publication source and answer the following questions. In order to answer question 3, you will have to google scholar  publications on play behavior of other species.
  1. In the case of Octopus vulgaris, how and why do they use water jets? 
  2. What are the implications of play behavior when you compare Octopus vulgaris with Octopus dofleini? 
  3. Do all taxa play? 
  4. What are the evolutionary implications of your claim?
Source: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&pid=explorer&chrome=true&srcid=0B6UE3zGJKJHIMzBlMDc4NWItZGJmNC00NjgwLWJiMTEtNWM3OGFiYWU0MmMx&hl=en_US

32 comments:

  1. Josette Joseph HBIO-P2August 31, 2011 at 8:17 PM

    1. The octopus uses water jets by, throwing the ball into the aperture of the water jet.
    They do that because since the aperture is an opening like a crack, the stream of water would push and bring the ball back to the octopus.

    2. The implications of play behavior when you compare both octopuses are: correspondance to food and nonfood objects, age, and sex of the octopus.

    3. All taxons do not play.

    4.The evolutionary implications of my claims are: play should be more frequently observed in younger, smaller animals, as proposed by various theories on the importance of play in training. And play helps mammals to be better prepaired for unexpected events.

    ReplyDelete
  2. 1) Octopus Vulgaris use their water jets to manipulate objects they use this to play
    2) The implications of play in bothOctopus Vulgaris and Octopus defelini are food, sex, and age
    3) Not all taxa play (http://www.nature.com/nbt/journal/v1/n9/abs/nbt1183-784.html)
    4) The eveloutionary implications of my claims include the following. The type of organisms that play, their age, and their size

    ReplyDelete
  3. 1.In the case of Octopus vulgaris, how and why do they use water jets? They use the water jets to manipulate objects instead of their arms

    2. What are the implications of play behavior when you compare Octopus vulgaris with Octopus dofleini? The implications are food,sex,and age

    3,Do all taxa play? no

    4.What are the evolutionary implications of your claim?The evolutionary implications of my claim are that younger animals shouls play more so they learn innate behavviors

    ReplyDelete
  4. 1)The octopus use water jets to help them play in a way. They replace their hand with the water jets

    2)The implications of both octopus vulgairs and dofleini are the age of the octopus, the gender of the octopus and whether or not you feed it after or before play

    3)NO, not sll taxa play (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0047248404001277)

    4)I think that all species will evolve and somehow learn from their ancestors how to play. However the younger animals will always play more or the same compared to older animals. As they frequently play, this will become a learned behavior and maybe even a innate behavior.

    ReplyDelete
  5. 1. Octopus Vulgaris used their water jets in order to manipulate objects while playing. For example, two adult octopuses would grasp the object and jet water at it without letting go.
    2. The implications of play behavior when you compare Octopus vulgaris and Octopus dolfleini are them both being able to differentiate between food and nonfood objects, their play-like behavior was not misplaced predation, and that the age of the octopuses was not a factor.
    3. No, all taxas do not play due to evidence from two different papers. In one by Judy Diamond and Alan B. Bond, "Although social play is broadly distributed among mammals, it is infrequently encountered in other verterbrate taxa." In the other, it is also stated that some taxas play, but not all.
    4. The evolutionary implications of my claims are that over time there have been taxa that do play, but others have yet to make that development. Also, more taxa should be studied as evidently they are more likely to play in less stressful situations.

    Citations:

    Animal Play, Edited by Marc Bekoff and John A. Byers, http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=jkiTQ8dIIHsC&oi=fnd&pg=PA45&dq=taxa+play&ots=06wg3Z6A3q&sig=LRLWnhDJYWodOn0lOa_Gf8c-Ef4#v=onepage&q=taxa%20play&f=false

    A Comparative Analysis of Social Play in Birds, Judy Diamond, Alan B. Bond, University of Nebraska State Museum, School of Biological Sciences, University of Nebraksa, Lincoln, Nebraska, http://www.jstor.org/pss/4536079

    ReplyDelete
  6. Kevin Acosta HBIO P7September 1, 2011 at 3:18 PM

    1) They use water jets to manipulate objects
    2)The implications are food, sex, and age
    3)Not all taxa play
    4)Mostly vertebrates play but that later on most other taxas will start to play due to evolution

    citation:http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=jkiTQ8dIIHsC&oi=fnd&pg=PA45&dq=taxa+play&ots=06wg3Z6A3q&sig=LRLWnhDJYWodOn0lOa_Gf8c-Ef4#v=onepage&q=taxa%20play&f=false

    ReplyDelete
  7. Devin Gamboa HBIO per 2September 1, 2011 at 3:55 PM

    1. They use their water jets to manipulate objects.
    2. The implications of play behavior when you compare the octopi is communication to food and nonfood objects, sex, and age.
    3. All taxa do not play
    4. The evolutionary implications of my claim are that taxa that are under non stressful situation play more, play can be like training for unknown events

    ReplyDelete
  8. 1)In the case of Octopus vulgaris, how and why do they use water jets?
    Octopus Vulgaris use water jets to play and handle objects,instead of using their "hands"

    2)What are the implications of play behavior when you compare Octopus
    vulgaris with Octopus dofleini?
    The implications of play behavior when you compare Octopus vulgaris and Octopus dolfleini are the the food, the gender and the age.

    3)Do all taxa play?
    No, not all taxa play

    4)What are the evolutionary implications of your claim?
    As time passes and time evolves the species will learn how to play from what their family ancestors have done. Playing with other animals will be more notable in smaller animals than older, more adult animals.

    ReplyDelete
  9. This comment has been removed by the author.

    ReplyDelete
  10. Alex Valdivia HBIO P2September 1, 2011 at 4:49 PM

    1. The Octopus Vulgaris use water jets to manipulate objects instead of using their tentacles.
    2. The implecations of play when you compare Octopus Vulgaris and Octopus Dolfleini are the food, the gender, and the age.
    3. Not all taxa play.
    4. I think that over time all taxa will learn how to play through observing other taxa playing. This will be able to prepare taxa for unexpected events and help them with their daily lives.

    ReplyDelete
  11. 1) They use the water jets to manipulate the objects
    2) The implications are food, gender, and age
    3) No not all taxa play
    4) The evolutionary implications of my claim are that younger animals should play more frequently, this benefits them because it gives them plenty of "practice" to get them ready for the real world.

    ReplyDelete
  12. Olusade Calhoun- P7September 1, 2011 at 5:15 PM

    1. The species of Octopus vulgaris use their water jets by manipulating objects from their funnels while they play. The purpose of doing this to easily grab a hold of the object to "play" with it.

    2. When you compare the Octopus vulgaris and Octopus dofleini, the implications are the following: the age of the octopus, the sex of the octopus and the food the octopus contains.

    3. No; all taxa do not play.

    4. The evolutionary implications of my source starts with the hypothesis: is play more likely to be present in organisms with brains? The scientists tested mammals by using independent contrasts, or a method that controls for phylogenetic relatedness. In conclusion, animals like rodents, primates and marsupials were unable to play.

    Citation:
    http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/com/115/1/29/

    ReplyDelete
  13. Eden Mesfin hbio p7 said...

    1)octopus vulgaris used water jets to manipulate objects.
    2)The implication of play behavior when you compare octopus vulgaris with octopus dofleini are age,food and sex
    3)No,all taxa doesn't play
    4)Evolution of age

    site
    WWW. Google.com

    ReplyDelete
  14. 1) The octopus uses water jets by throwing a ball into the water jet, so the jet would shoot the ball back. They would do this instead of using their tentacles.
    2) The implications of play behavior when you compare Octopus vulgaris with Octopus dofleini are food, age, and sex.
    3) Not all taxa play.
    4) The evolutionary implications of my claim are that young taxa should play more often. If taxa play more often, then they are likely to improve their muscular systems and be more ready for fighting off or getting away from predators.

    ReplyDelete
  15. lorenzo baroni hbio p.2September 1, 2011 at 5:23 PM

    1. Octopus vulgaris uses water jets to manipulate objects.
    2. The impilications of play when you compare the two are their food, their gender, and their age.
    3. No not all taxa play.
    4. The evolutionary implications of my claim are that taxa should play more often so they can practice in many real life situations.

    ReplyDelete
  16. Vanessa Estrada, second period.September 1, 2011 at 5:30 PM

    In the case of Octopus vulgaris, how and why do they use water jets?
    Octopus Vulgaris use the water jets in a play-like manner; They use the water jets in a manipulative manner.
    What are the implications of play behavior when you compare Octopus vulgaris with Octopus dofleini?
    The implications of play behavior between these two species of Octopuses are food and nonfood objects, their gender, and age.
    Do all taxa play? No, not all taxa play.
    What are the evolutionary implications of your claim? I believe that all taxa should learn to play. They will do so, as they mature, and observe other taxa. Learning can make their habitual lives easier and it can help them manage it well and defend themselves when the situation asks for it.

    ReplyDelete
  17. Edgar Carrero Period 7 HBIOSeptember 1, 2011 at 5:31 PM

    1. The Octopus vulgaris used his/her water jets to manipulate the item, two of them would grab the object and jet water at it without letting go.

    2. The implications of play behavior when you compare octopus vulgaris to octopus dofleini are the age, the sex, and the food deprivation.

    3. All taxa do not play. Play has not been documented in intermediate taxa.

    4. My evolutionary implications of my claim are that all animals will play more if they are put in less stressful situations and are not starved, so if more food is available to them they will not be stressed and definitely not starved making them more likely to play.

    Citations: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&pid=explorer&chrome=true&srcid=0B6UE3zGJKJHIMzBlMDc4NWItZGJmNC00NjgwLWJiMTEtNWM3OGFiYWU0MmMx&hl=en_US

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Play_(activity)

    ReplyDelete
  18. Samantha Schneider P.4September 1, 2011 at 5:46 PM

    1. The octopus uses the water jets for activities like play and for disposal puposes. They dispose of the remains of crabs, small fish, clams and any other crustaceans the octopus might have been eating. They do this by by using the water jets to push all of the "leftovers" out of there cave or den which they consider home, this usually atracts many other fish who eat the remains.
    2. The implications of play behavior when comparing octopus vulagaris and octopus dolfleini are whether the octopus has eaten or not, the gender of the octopus, and the age of the octopus.
    3. No, not all taxa play. I found an article in the Journal of Comparative Phychology about the fact that maybe taxa with larger brains play more than taxa with smaller brains, this would have to do with the size if the animal when it was born.
    4. The evolutionary implications of my claim include that younger animals will always have more energy and be more capable to play than the older animals. This play is a good thing because it could possibly help them in the future if the animal ever gets into a real fight.

    References-
    http://www.thecephalopodpage.org/behavior.php
    http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/1999-03911-013
    http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/com/115/1/29/

    ReplyDelete
  19. 1. They use water jets from their funnels and not their arms to manipulate objects.
    2. The implications of play behavior of both octopus are food, sex and age.
    3. No, not all taxa play http://www.jstor.org/pss/187890
    4. The evolutionary implications will be that play should be more frequently observed in younger, smaller animals, as proposed by various theories on the importance of play in training and preparing animals for future behaviors.

    ReplyDelete
  20. Carla Segovia HBIO P4September 1, 2011 at 6:13 PM

    1) Octopus Vulgaris uses water jets to manipulate objects instead of using their tentacles. It throwed a ball into the water jet so the jet would shoot the ball back.
    2) The implications of play behavior when you compare Octopus vulgaris with Octopus dofleini are food, age, and gender.
    3) Not all taxa play.
    4) The evolutionary implications of my claim are that young, smaller taxa should play more. They would then be more likely to defend themselves if the situation demands it.

    ReplyDelete
  21. Gabriella Izzo P. 4

    1. Octupus vulgaris use the water jets to manipulate objects using funnels instead of their arms. They do this as a form of "playing".

    2. The implications of play behavior when you compare octopus vulgaris to octopus dofleini are: food, gender, and age.

    3. Not all taxa play.

    4. My evolutionary implications of my claim are that younger animals should play more often so that when they grow to be older, they are more ready to fight and get away from any predators.

    ReplyDelete
  22. Gabriel Casella P7G1September 1, 2011 at 6:56 PM

    *The octopus vulgaris use water jets to manipulate objects instead of actually using their "arms" (tentacles), they use this ability to "play" with the ball.

    *The implications of play behavior of both octopi are the age, the gender and what time the octopi were fed.

    *Negative, not all Taxa play

    *My evolutionary implications of is that play is more common among the younger octopi because it allows the to better develop skills and curiosity, play is a learned behavior that can later can become an innate behavior. Play in mammals shows that they all have evolved the same genetic code which enables play in the young. And as consequence this shows that play is essential to the survival and development of the species as a whole. I f play wasn't relevant it would have been it would have been discarded from the evolutionary gene pool.

    ReplyDelete
  23. 1. In the case of Octopus vulgaris, they use water jets to manipulate objects when in play instead of their "hands" otherwise known as their tentacles.
    2. The implications of play behavior when you compare Octopus Vulgaris and Octopus Dafleini are gender, age, and food.
    3. No, taxa cannot play. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0047248404001277)
    4. My claim of evolutionary implication is this: smaller animals, or the young, could learn more about how to defend themselves and stay fit by playing more.

    ReplyDelete
  24. 1.in the case of the octopus vulgaris he/she use there water jets to manipulate objects when there playing instead of there tentacles or "hands"
    2.the implications of behavior in the two are gender, age,and food
    3. no not all taxa play
    4. my evolutionary implication is that younger animals should play more often so when there out in the wild they already have all the skills needed to survive and are fit

    ReplyDelete
  25. Jose Balcazar HBIO Per.2September 1, 2011 at 8:48 PM

    1.In the case of Octopus vulgaris, how and why do they use water jets? Octopus Vulgaris use water jets from their funnels, not their arms to manipulate objects.h
    2.What are the implications of play behavior when you compare Octopus vulgaris with Octopus dofleini? The implications of play behavior when you compare Octopus vulgaris with Octopus dofleini are food, sex and age.3.
    3.Do all taxa play? No all taxa do not play.
    4.What are the evolutionary implications of your claim? As time goes on and on the taxas will learn how to play by seeing other taxas and by following in the steps of their ancestors. Most taxas that are adults rarely play, in fact it is the younger ones that do all the playing.

    ReplyDelete
  26. 1.)Octopus Vulgaris use water jets in order to grasp and manipulate an object.

    2.)When you compare Octopus Vulgaris and Dolfleini, Octopus Dolfleini used water jets from their funnels and not their arms to manipulate objects. Also, Octopus Vulgarius is very active, curious, and agile, while octopus Dolfleini is a nocturnal cold-water species making it less active.
    3.)Most taxa does not play
    4.)The evolutionary implications of my claims are that while the octopus is young it should play more in order to prepare it to know how to defend itself and interact in an open and wild habitat with other octopi.

    ReplyDelete
  27. 1. Octopus Vulgaris use their water jets to manipulate objects they use this to play
    2. The implications of both octopus vulgairs and dofleini are the age of the octopus, the gender of the octopus and whether or not you feed it after or before play
    3. All taxa do not play
    4. The evolutionary implications of my claim are that young taxa should play more often. If taxa play more often, then they are likely to improve their muscular systems and be more ready for fighting off or getting away from predators

    ReplyDelete
  28. Natalia Gonzalez P.4September 2, 2011 at 8:28 AM

    1. Octopus Vulgaris use their water jets to manipulate objects they use this to play.
    2. The implications of both dofleini and octopus vulgairs are the gender of the octopus, the age of the octopus and whether or not you feed it before and/or after play.
    3. All taxa do NOT play.
    4. My claim of evolutionary implication is this: smaller animals, or the young, could learn more about how to defend themselves and stay fit by playing more.

    ReplyDelete
  29. Kaitlin Schwartz PR.7September 2, 2011 at 6:55 PM

    1. Octopus Vulgaris use their water jets in order to manipulate/ move obje cts much like other animals use their hands and feet.
    2.in comparison of Octopus Vulgaris and Dolfleini, Octopus vulgaris use their arms to manipulate objects while octopus Dolfeini use water jets from their funnels and not their arms to manipulate objects. Also a big difference is that, Octopus Vulgarius is a very active,cuious,and agile animal. while octopus Dolfleini is a nocturnal cold-water species making it less active and looks almost "groggy" when it moves. In play behavior when you compare both octopuses they differ in their correspondance to food and nonfood objects, age, and sex of the octopus.
    3.No not all taxa play.
    4. The evolutionary implications of my claim are that younger taxas play so that in the future (when they are fully mature) they are prepared for survival.
    ~ (i have been trying to post this for a while but my computer has been fussy and i only just fixed it)

    ReplyDelete
  30. 1. Instead of using their arms, the octopus uses water jets to manipulate objects.
    2. The implications are: food, sex and age.
    3. Not all taxa play
    4. The evolutionary implications of my claim include: The organism/species, the age, sex, size, physical state...etc. Not all taxa play but eventually as time passes (evolution) they will play.
    (I was absent on friday, but i saw this post up on the blog, sorry its late.)

    ReplyDelete
  31. 1. In the case of Octopus vulgaris, how and why do they use water jets? instead of using there arms they use the jet streams to manipulate objects they do it by creating a stream to play.
    2.What are the implications of play behavior when you compare Octopus vulgaris with Octopus dofleini? The implications of both dofleini and octopus vulgairs are the gender of the octopus, the age of the octopus and the food it eats.
    3.Do all taxa play? No not all taxas play.
    4.What are the evolutionary implications of your claim?the evolutionary implications of my claim are that are that younger taxas should play more so that they get stronger and fiter and then they are more likely
    to survive and in the future all taxas might learn how to play and start to by evolution

    ReplyDelete
  32. 1) The octopus vulgarius uses its water jets to manipulate objects in a play-like behavior. They release streams of water called "water jets" through their funnel.

    2) The Octopus vulgarius is very active and is very playful with objects that are placed into it's tank. Wheres, the octopus dolfeini is not as active and does not interact with objects in it's tank unless the object approaches it. Knowing that octopus dolfeini is nocturnal and lives in cold water, it's behavior implies that it has low visibility levels, and tries to preserve energy for survival.

    3) There is no documented evidence to support or deny the claim," All taxa can play" or " Not all taxa can play".

    4) According to the taxa, i don't believe all taxa play because it depends on the environment and how they adapt to it in order to survive. If you look at octopus vulgaris and octopus delfeini, u will see a key difference in behavior. It also states in the article, that the ancestry of taxa, may not have had the capacity to produce play-like behavior. This is support for my idea that play depends on environment and adaption.

    ReplyDelete