Tuesday, September 13, 2011

Attractants & repellents

Do an iGoogle Scholar search for insect attractants and repellents, and comment.

Bring to Wednesday lab period for behavior experimentation. Remember you will have to run repetitions, so bring enough.

26 comments:

  1. Samantha Schneider Period 4September 13, 2011 at 1:47 PM

    Attractants for insects include sugar,honey, decomposing bananas, feces,and animal cadaver.
    Repellents include cinnamon, most herbs including basil, and citronella oil.

    Reference-
    http://www.annals.org/content/128/11/931.short
    http://www.publish.csiro.au/paper/CH9682819.htm

    ReplyDelete
  2. I found out that insects are attracted to sugar, and sugar based foods like cereal, pancake syrup, sodas and juices. Some insects also eat the Eucalyptus plants, which is made into an oil for our use.

    I also found repellents like cinnamon, chili pepper, black pepper, turmeric. An experiment was conducted with all four of these spices and beetles. A wheat grain was coated with each one of the spices and put in a controlled environment, all spices were repellents;cinnamon being the most effective.

    Citations
    - Effect of four powdered spices as repellents against adults of Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), Sitophilus granarius (L.) and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) in laboratory conditions
    N. Shayesteh, S. Ashouri

    - Cover for container with screen to prevent insect intrusion Frank J. Cerrone, Jr.

    - What physiological processes permit insects to eat Eucalyptus leaves?
    Paul D. Cooper
    Article first published online: 20 DEC 2001

    - Method of attracting and killing insects Jerry E. Ott

    ReplyDelete
  3. Ants are attracted to: Dog Food!!! (i know from experience), Honey/ other syrups, Cereal(Frosted Flakes, Captain Crunch, Coco puffs....etc), Jam,Sugar based products,Some ants are also attracted to fungus.Many species of ants will eat the bodies of dead insects that are much larger than they, including caterpillars and grasshoppers. Harvester ants collect, store and eat seeds. The Argentine ant, which is native to Argentina and Brazil but can also be found in the United States, will eat meat, eggs, oil and just about anything else humans leave around, they also like brown sugar, fruit juice, and protein.

    Ants a Repelled to:Cinnamon, Backing Soda,Mints,Basil,Cayenne Pepper,bitter,sour,spicy,and salty foods are toxic to them,Vinegar. Also, for some reason ants do not seem to like banana peels
    Sources:
    http://www.catalogs.com/info/earth-science/what-do-ants-eat.html

    ReplyDelete
  4. Kathlyn Larralde HBIO P.2September 13, 2011 at 3:57 PM

    Insects attractants include sugar, substances with sugar can include nectar, sap, honey, substances we buy at the grocery store with high amounts of sugar like soda, candies, and cereals.

    Insects repellents include citronella oil, oil of cloves, cinnamon, lemon, peppermint, camphor, and pennyroyal, and many other herbs. (A natural repellent can even be made consisting of pennyroyal herb, tasy herb, calendula, citronella, pyrethrin, and aloe vera. Found on United States Patent # 5776477 Organic Insect Repellent: Kathleen A. Ryder)

    Sources/Citation:
    United States Patent # 5776477 Organic Insect Repellent; Kathleen A. Ryder

    United States Patent #4369176 Method of Attracting and Killing Insects; Jerry E. Ott

    Mosquitoes and Mosquito Repellents: A Clinician's Guide; Mark S. Fradin, MD

    TOXICOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF COMPOUNDS PROPOSED FOR USE AS INSECT REPELLENTS: A. LOCAL AND SYSTEMIC EFFECTS FOLLOWING TOPICAL SKIN APPLICATION; B. ACUTE ORAL TOXICITY; C. PATHOLOGICAL EXAMINATION; John H. Draize, Elsie Alvarez, Marie F. Whitesell, Geoffrey Woodard, E. Conway Hagan, and Arthur A. Nelson

    Insect repellents: An overview;
    Margaret Brown MDa, Adelaide A. Hebert MDa,b and From the Departments of Dermatologya and Pediatrics,b The University of Texas Medical School at Houston.

    United States Patent #5843215 Insect Repellent Coatings; Mark E. Whalon et al

    ReplyDelete
  5. Zachary Mallet Honors Biology Period 4September 13, 2011 at 4:46 PM

    The Insects traps have to be specialized for the certain insect we are trying to capture. For every insect attractant there is a repellent and vise verse, a repellent for one species might be and attractant for another. There fore we have to chose a repellent that will attract the species and repel its predator to increase the population of the species around the trap. For example Mosquito's and many other insects are attracted to bright colors, carbon dioxide, lactic acid, floral or fruity fragrance, warmth, moisture and pheromones. As a result of that we should pick a attractant that also repels dragonflies because the dragonfly is the predator of the mosquito, so we shouldn't choose a attractant that also attracts dragonflies.

    Interval suction traps were used to study the attractant effect of CO2 and 1-octen-3-ol on trap catches of mosquito populations at 2 different locations in Florida. There was no significant increase in the numbers of mosquitoes caught when the concentration of CO2 was increased from 200 to 1,000 cc/min. One-octen-3-ol used by itself attracted mosquitoes in numbers similar to CO2 released at 200 cc/min. One-octen-3-ol and CO2 acted synergistically in attracting significantly greater numbers of Aedes taeniorhynchus, Anopheles spp. and Wyeomyia mitchellii than either bait used singly, although the response of Culex spp. to this bait combination was less pronounced. Ceratopogonidae (Culicoides furens) and Tabanidae (Diachlorus ferrugatus, Tabanus nigrovittatus and Chrysops spp.) were also attracted to the combined bait.
    Source
    U.S. Department of Agriculture, Insects Affecting Man and Animals Research Laboratory, Gainesville, FL 32604

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  6. Jose Balcazar, HBIO P2September 13, 2011 at 5:17 PM

    I found out that most insects are attracted to sugar based substances such as syrup, cereal, candy, jams, etc. Some even eat honeydew which is “a sweet substance secreted by aphids as they ingest the juices of plants.” Another thing that some insects, especially the Leaf-Cutter ants, include in their diet is fungus. Not only sugar based substances but some insects will also eat other dead insects smaller or bigger than themselves. In the other hand insects are mostly repellent to cinnamon, peppers, basil, other herbs, and other types of substances.

    Citations:
    http://www.catalogs.com/info/earth-science/what-do-ants-eat.html

    ReplyDelete
  7. Edgar Carrero Period 7 HBIOSeptember 13, 2011 at 5:27 PM

    According to my research insects are attracted to sweets like sugar or honey. Some insects are attracted to fungus. Also some insects are attracted to other dead insects. Mosquitoes are attracted to carbon dioxide, which is how they find their food.

    Many herbs like the pennyroyal herb, the tansy herb, and some more common herbs repel insects. They are also repelled by vinegar, isopropyl alcohol, and pure aloe vera juice.

    Citations:

    http://www.google.com/patents?hl=en&lr=&vid=USPAT5776477&id=15oiAAAAEBAJ&oi=fnd&dq=herb+insect+repellant&printsec=abstract#v=onepage&q&f=false

    http://www.google.com/patents?hl=en&lr=&vid=USPAT5776477&id=15oiAAAAEBAJ&oi=fnd&dq=herb+insect+repellant&printsec=abstract#v=onepage&q&f=false

    ReplyDelete
  8. When making a insect trap, you have to consider the different kinds of insects you want to attract. Different insects are attracted to different things. For example, ants are attracted to sweets, such as syrup, sugar, candy... Caribbean fruit flies are attracted to torula yeast/borax (which can be bought online by the pound in pellet form), human urine, and chicken feces. Additionally, in Florida they are attracted to overripe citrus. There is also a certain kind of trap, called the McPhail trap, specially made for fruit flies. Unfortunately, I was unable to find satisfactory sources on Google Scholar about insect repellents, but I have heard that cinnamon and all spices, certain herbs, and peppers repel insects.

    Sources:
    http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/esa/jee/2003/00000096/00000002/art00012
    Human Urine and Chicken Feces as Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Attractants for Resource-Poor Fruit Growers
    By: Piñero, Jaime; Aluja, Martín; Vázquez, Alejandro; Equihua, Miguel; Varón, Jorge

    The Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) (Diptera Tephritidae) McPhail Traps for Survey and Selection
    By: A.K. Burditt, Jr.
    http://www.jstor.org/pss/3494310

    ReplyDelete
  9. according to what ive read insects are attracted to any sweets like sugar or honey and even syrup. some insects eat other insects and even some eat fungus like the leaf cutter ants.

    some repellents include vinegar and alcohol and some oils like lavender oil they are also repelled bye herbs like spearmint, lavender,basil,ect.


    citation
    http://www.catalogs.com/info/earth-science/what-do-ants-eat.html
    http://www.theecologist.org/green_green_living/how_to/270995/how_to_repel_insects_and_pests_naturally.html

    ReplyDelete
  10. Josette Joseph, HBIO P-2September 13, 2011 at 6:02 PM

    From reading this expert from the article by Shu-Sheng Liu1,*, Yue-Hong Li1, Yin-quan Liu1, Myron P. Zalucki2, he was saying, "insects are attracted by host-plant volatiles and supposedly repelled by volatiles from non-host plants" eventhough he didn't state a point to exactly what insects are atracted to and are repelled to, I found some details of to what exactly attracts them. Most insects are attracted to sugar in the form of water, they are also attracted to lights, and honey. Basically any sweet things that are just lying around will attract them. An unusual thing is that a few insects are really attracted to hummingbird's nectar. Insects are repelled by mostly common horrifying things like; cinnamon, rotten fruits,and feces(poo-poo)


    Insects are like lost puppies as I can see. They get drawn by rediculous things and they like to wonder not just one place but everywhere.

    Citation:
    Repellent activity of selected essential oils against Aedes aegypti

    Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand

    ReplyDelete
  11. Ant are attracted to sugars or food that are high in amino acids such as honey,also carbohydrates and proteins. Some ant consume fungus and other insects

    -http://www.infoplease.com/cig/science-fair-projects/foods-attract-ants.html

    -http://www.catalogs.com/info/earth-science/what-do-ants-eat.html

    Some ant repellants are vinegar, herbs and spices, powders, and strong cented foods

    -http://frugalliving.about.com/od/doityourself/tp/Get_Rid_of_Ants_Cheaply.htm

    ReplyDelete
  12. Isabella Carrasco, Period 4September 13, 2011 at 6:42 PM

    Ants are known to be attracted to a variety of substances, like the pharaoh ant is attracted to sweets, such as jellies, cakes, breads, and greasy, fattening foods (pie, bacon, etc.). Their nests are usually in close proximity to warmth and a source of water. Other species of ants are attracted to meats, fruit, vegetables, honey, cheese and other dairy products.

    However, these ants are repelled by cedar, cinnamon, and lemon juice, along with a few other substances like mint. Insects are also prone to be repelled by these substances as well.

    Credits:

    House-infesting ants
    and their management

    Issued in furtherance of Cooperative Extension Work in Agriculture and Home Economics, Acts of Congress of May 8, 1914, as amended, and
    June 30, 1914, in cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture. Zerle L. Carpenter, Director, Texas Agricultural Extension Service,
    The Texas A&M University System.
    5M–9-97, Revision

    http://university.uog.edu/cals/people/PUBS/InsHome/L-2061.pdf

    Natural insect repellant
    MA Mills - US Patent App. 20,070/092,544, 2005

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  13. Most ants are attracted to sweets like jam or plain sugar.some ant species go to salty things like chicken, sometimes food made of wheat as well. I've seen this before, if there is no sugary substance like candy then they aim for the salty and if thats not therethey aim for the bread or grains of rice.


    Source
    http://www.catalogs.com/info/earth-science/what-do-ants-eat.html

    ReplyDelete
  14. I found out that insects are attracted to sugar, and sugar based foods like juices, syrup cereal, pancake, sodas. Some insects are attracted to fungus and some are even attracted to other dead insects. Mosquitoes are attracted to carbon dioxide, because that's how they find their food.

    Cinnamon is thought of as the most effective repellant, Many common herbs like the tansy herb, pennyroyal herb, and some more common herbs repel insects. Ialso found that Iinsects are repelled by vinegar, alcohol, isopropyl, chili pepper, pure aloe vera juice and black pepper.

    Citations:

    http://www.google.com/patents?hl=en&lr=&vid=USPAT5776477&id=15oiAAAAEBAJ&oi=fnd&dq=herb+insect+repellant&printsec=abstract#v=onepage&q&f=false

    http://www.google.com/patents?hl=en&lr=&vid=USPAT5776477&id=15oiAAAAEBAJ&oi=fnd&dq=herb+insect+repellant&printsec=abstract#v=onepage&q&f=false

    - Effect of four powdered spices as repellents against adults of Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), Sitophilus granarius (L.) and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) in laboratory conditions
    N. Shayesteh, S. Ashouri

    - Method of attracting and killing insects Jerry E. Ott

    ReplyDelete
  15. According to the Mississippi Entomological museum, common insects are attracted by sugars and sweets (cookies, sugar, cakes etc.), rotting fruits with sugar or cheap wine,and foods such as tuna and hotdogs.

    The rotting fruit with added sugar and/or wine allows the mixture to give off an odor that attracts insects and also the sugar will attract insects such as ants, beetles, flies and moths.

    Source
    "Baiting for insects - collecting methodsMississippi Entomological Museum Home." Mississippi Entomological Museum Home. Mississippi state university , n.d. Web. 13 Sept. 2011. .


    According to the article "Insects turn up their noses at sweating plants", it states that insects are repelled by Isoprene. Isoprene is produced by plants and when insects approach it they can smell the odor of isoprene and are naturally repelled from the plant.

    source

    Gershenzon, Jonathan. "Insects turn up their noses at sweating plants." National Center for Biotechnology Information. National academy of sciences, 7 Nov. 2008. Web. 13 Sept. 2011. .

    ReplyDelete
  16. According to the first article, ants are attracted to chemicals called pheromones and mostly sweets, such as sugar and honey. They are also attracted to eating the dead bodies of other insects, such as aphids, caterpillars, and grasshoppers.
    According to the second article, the best repellent for insects is a chemical called N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide, or DEET. DEET works better than most other substances used for repelling insects.

    http://www.catalogs.com/info/earth-science/what-do-ants-eat.html

    http://www.annals.org/content/128/11/931.short

    ReplyDelete
  17. Lukas Montejo, HBIO P2September 13, 2011 at 8:13 PM

    Attractants:
    I found out that ants are attracted to sweet things. This makes sense because ants naturally mostly feed on honeydew that aphids secrete from stimulation from the ants legs. This process is called "milking". Only some species of ants such as the leaf-cutter ant eat fungus and other species eat other insects.

    Repellents:
    What I learned about repellents was that Catnip, pennyroyal, peppermint, sage, and spearmint repel ants. You can also repel ants with an organic compound called Nootkatone which also intoxicates them. Nootkatone is found in grapefruit.

    Citations:
    http://www.catalogs.com/info/earth-science/what-do-ants-eat.html
    http://www.ghorganics.com/page11.html
    http://www.freepatentsonline.com/y2003/0073748.html

    ReplyDelete
  18. Gabriel Casella P7G1September 13, 2011 at 8:34 PM

    Note: You have to take consideration that not all insects are attracted and repelled by the same things. Also color, temperature, brightness and other factors may affect the results.

    Insects are repelled by many things. For example, Pennyroyal herb, Tansy herb, Calendula, Citronella, Pyrethrin, Aloe Vera, Essential Oil, Nepetalactone, Icaridin, Neem Oil, Eucalyptus Oil, Isopropyl Alcohol, etc.



    Insects are attracted to many things for example Carbon dioxide with One-octen-3-ol (mushroom alcohol). Also they are extremely attracted to sugar (from experience and reaserch), which includes syrup, jam, candy, soda, cereals, chocolate, nectar, etc.

    http://www.google.com/patents?hl=en&lr=&vid=USPAT4506473&id=3yErAAAAEBAJ&oi=fnd&dq=insect+attractant&printsec=abstract#v=onepage&q&f=false


    http://www.google.com/patents?hl=en&lr=&vid=USPAT5776477&id=15oiAAAAEBAJ&oi=fnd&dq=herb+insect+repellant&printsec=abstract#v=onepage&q&f=false

    I also got some of this information from an insect repellent can I own.

    ReplyDelete
  19. Carla Segovia HBIO P4September 13, 2011 at 8:39 PM

    Even though most ants consume a broad variety of foods (they're omnivorous), some species prefer some types of foods and some change their preferences over time. To trap an insect, one must choose the most attractive food material, such as peanut butter, mint apple jelly, corn syrup, etc. Insects are attracted to sugar based products such as syrup and honey.

    Some repellants are herbs, vinegar and cinnamon.

    http://university.uog.edu/cals/people/PUBS/InsHome/L-2061.pdf

    http://www.catalogs.com/info/earth-science/what-do-ants-eat.html

    http://www.google.com/patents?hl=en&lr=&vid=USPAT5776477&id=15oiAAAAEBAJ&oi=fnd&dq=herb+insect+repellant&printsec=abstract#v=onepage&q&f=false

    ReplyDelete
  20. "During bacterial chemotaxis, attractants and repellents alter the methylation levels of the methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCPs). These methylation levels represent a balance between two enzymatic processes: methylation and demethylation. In vivo experiments previously have shown that chemoeffectors influence the demethylation process; effects on the methylation system have not been reported. Here we show that in a cell-free extract of Escherichia coli both methylation and demethylation of the MCPs are affected by attractants and repellents. Attractants enhance methylation and inhibit demethylation. Repellents inhibit methylation and stimulate demethylation. The cell-free system provides an opportunity for further study of the mechanisms by which attractants and repellents influence the levels of methylation of the MCPs."

    PNAS December 1, 1979 vol. 76 no. 12 6309-6313http://www.pnas.org/content/76/12/6309.short

    i think that from reading articles that ants can be attreacted to food such like sugars and even insects.they can also be repelled to smells or some kinds of herbs alchohol all sorts of things.

    ReplyDelete
  21. Daniel Bertak HBIO 2nd PeriodSeptember 13, 2011 at 9:52 PM

    According to Anne Marie Helmenstine, Ph.D.,mosquito attractants are dark clothing, carbon dioxide, lactic acid, floral or fruity fragrances, slightly cooler temperatures of the extremities, and moisture.

    Acording to Anne Marie Helmenstine, Ph.D., mosquito repellants are
    •Citronella Oil
    •Lemon Eucalyptus Oil
    •Cinnamon Oil
    •Castor Oil
    •Rosemary Oil
    •Lemongrass Oil
    •Cedar Oil
    •Peppermint Oil
    •Clove Oil
    •Geranium Oil
    •Possibly Oils from Verbena, Pennyroyal, Lavender, Pine, Cajeput, Basil, Thyme, Allspice, Soybean, and Garlic


    Anne Marie Helmenstine, Ph.D. Natural Mosquito Repellents. Retrieved from http://chemistry.about.com/cs/howthingswork/a/aa050503a.htm

    ReplyDelete
  22. The first time my group did the bug trap experiment all we caught was to little black ants, so when I searched about insect attractants and repellents on Google Scholar i accidentally typed in "attract ants" instead of "attractants". I found that seeds of many plant species have external appendages which ants in general are attracted to. Not all ants, but most. These appendages are called elaiosomes and are connected to the outside of the seed coat and may have various different types of tissue. Sugary substances are also great attractants for ants because once one of the finds food he sends signals to the other ants to go where they food source is, therefore a lot of ants get stuck in the Vaseline.


    D. L. Marshall, A. J. Beattie and W. E. Bollenbacher



    http://www.springerlink.com/content/m166808227801qxp/

    ReplyDelete
  23. Alex Valdivia HBIO P.2September 14, 2011 at 6:05 PM

    In my research I have found that Mosquitos are mostly attracted to pheromones and sweet foods. Things like sugar or foods that have sugar in them like honey or syrup. Also some insects are attracted to sweet dents like lavender or the smell of flowers. Light will attract insects also.

    ReplyDelete
  24. I most recently found that mosquitos are mostly attracted to sugar based foods, basically things that contain sugar. Some repellants are cinnamon and certain types of herbs.

    ReplyDelete
  25. Insects are attracted to things that are sugary because Sugar is a direct source of energy. Rather than breaking up more complex structures which require energy to break into simpler forms, Sugar (table sugar = sucrose) just contains glucose and fructose subunits which can easily be broken down. And little bugs need energy to be out and serve their queen almost 24/7.

    ReplyDelete
  26. Eden Mesfin HBIO p-7G2 said



    Mosquitoes have chemoreceptor on their antennae.

    Carbon dioxide and lactic acid are the two best-studied
    Mosquito attractants. Carbon dioxide, released mainly
    From breath but also from skin, serves as a long-range
    Airborne attractant and can be detected by mosquitoes.
    .
    Floral or Fruity Fragrances, In addition to perfumes, hair products, and scented sunscreens, watch for the subtle floral fragrance from fabric softeners and dryer sheets.
    Skin Temperature The exact temperature depends on the type of mosquito. Many mosquitoes are attracted to the slightly cooler temperatures of the extremities.

    These same receptors may Be inhibited by N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET)-
    Mosquito repellents.
    Citations
    http://www.acponline.org/journals/annals/01jun98/mosquito.htm.

    ReplyDelete