Wednesday, January 20, 2010

3 new proposed rules for evolutionary theory - DUE WED FEB 3

This new article in the Scientist does a great job at discussing the latest new rules proposed to append the dogma of evolution (don’t you love debunkers!).

COMMENT ABOUT THE FOLLOWING 3 TOPICS (in parentheses, my comments):

  1. evolvability – (careful where your beef came from ...)
  2. facilitated variation – (call your GNC immediately and prepare for a new and improved version of “what to expect when you are expecting – a grandparents guide”)
  3. multilevel inheritance – (playing with scarier-than-ever eugenics, and freaking out on those ubiquitous plasmids ... I am getting my own carry-on mercury lamp and not taking antibiotics again in my entire life)
http://www.the-scientist.com/2010/1/1/24/1/

49 comments:

  1. Evolvability appears to me as indisputable. Of course there exists observable and heritable variation among generations of species. The article explains how the Modern Synthesis explains and accepts evolvability to an extent- addressing it as a broad factor instead of an independent trait separate from genetic variation. So is this to say that different populations have a varied intensity of evolvability? One population has a better ability to show heritable genetic variation then another?

    Facilitated variation attempts to explain the complex relations between the genotype and the phenotype. A species that enters a new environment seems to develop certain physical adaptions to the environment which helps them to survive, like in Alexander Badyaev’s study of the house finch. This adaption could not be blamed to mere mutation. Natural selection could only play a role after these finches were born. It would be amazing to prove that the environment affecting the phenotype of a species could be directly linked to changes and adaptions in the genotype of the species.

    Multilevel inheritance describes the observable changes in an animal due to changes in areas outside of the genetic code of DNA. It can be passed to offspring without a change in the sequence of the inherited genome. A simple removal of methyl groups from the “normally methylated agouti gene” in the yellow agouti mouse caused “yellow fur and a high-weight phenotype.” [Could we talk about this one in class?]

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  2. “You can look at the history of life as the evolution of game-changing innovations,” Wagner says. The theory of evolution, according to the article, endeavors to explain the heritable variation between organisms. It takes Darwin's theory to another level- expanding it to give a broader scoop of a scientist's point of view, not disregarding, or shunning any of the previous ideas. This article explains how Modern Synthesis (Calling it modern might be a stretch) explains the reasons of the evolution of genetic variation due to changes in frequencies by changes in gene frequency induced mostly by natural selection. Although Modern Synthesis fails to sufficiently to gestate he major evolutionary milestones that stand out, it still provides concepts of biology that would not have been found without the technology we have. According to a Michael Lynch, if a animal is stressed enough, it does strange things such as pass more extreme phenotypes. But where is evidence? Does it apply to humans as much as animals? Is this maybe the cause of genetic variation by population?

    Facilitated is a mild way to explain a concept that generate phenotypic variation from genetic change. Facilitated variation may also spark quicker evolutionary change than would result from random mutations, because developmental changes can create additional phenotypes upon which selection can act.This is proved by Alexander Badyaev who studies song birds known as finches native to deserts in American Southwest and Mexico. He tracked them over 15 generations in a study site in Montana and discovered that the birds were thriving extremely well. the new habitats were so different from their original habitats, the only way for finches to survive would be if their beak shape had changed rapidly—too rapidly to have resulted from just random mutations. This experiment, i'm sure, will prove that some phenotypes are affected not by just random mutations, but by the environment in which they attempt to adapt to.

    Multilevel inheritance describes passing on phenotypic changes to subsequent generations in ways that lie outside the genetic code of DNA. In one experiment, two groups of genetically identical Arabidopsis plants were exposed to either hot or cold conditions for two (P and F1) generations. The next generation (F2) from both experimental groups was grown at normal temperatures, but the offspring (F3) from both groups were grown in either hot or cold conditions. The F3 plants that were grown in hot conditions and descended from P and F1 plants also grown in hot conditions produced five times more seeds than did the F3 plants grown in hot conditions but descended from cold-treated ancestors. Because the chance of acquiring mutations within just two generations that led the heat-conditioned plants to thrive in hotter conditions was about slim to none, the authors presume that inherited epigenetic factors affecting flower production and early-stage seed survival in those plants had to be at work.

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  3. Evolvability is explained some what in the Modern Synthesis, but Darwin did not have a good grasp on the the subject. As well, the Modern Synthesis does not conceptualize evolutionary milestones like flight and photosynthesis. Some species can evolve quicker than others, meaning that they have greatly different phenotypes.

    Facilitated Variation is not understood in its entirety in the Modern Synthesis. It shows the complicated physical and chemical changes that occur during a fetus' growth period. Some new variations, such as the beak shape of a bird, could only change after the birds were in the environment in which they needed a different shaped beak for quite some time.

    In multilevel inheritance, elements such as chromatin structure can be passed from parent to offspring without changing the actual sequence of the genome (epigenetic inheritance). The Modern Synthesis was sure that genes were the primary units of inheritance, but they did not have a clear concept of this idea.

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  4. All right where to begin?

    Evolvability - Evolvability is simply the ability to evolve or to produce heritable, phenotypic variation. What this portion of the article is trying to explain is that populations with a larger genetic variation tend to change (phenotypically) much faster than other populations. Evolvability is not a distinct trait, rather than a broader aspect of the genetic variation. The "watch where your beef comes from" is simply pointing out to see how exactly has the evolution of a certain population has come to be.

    Facilitated variation - a way to refer to the complex set of physical and chemical forces that change the outcome of the relations genotype and phenotype. it seems that at first evolution would come from the gradual, random genetic mutations. Now its a lot more complicated than just that. Apparently through the habitats of animals, especially those that are not suitable, affect the outcome of mutations that are naturally occurring randomly. For instance the finch experiment. Such a quick adaptation of the beak couldn't have happened simply by mere random mutation. something else had to be in play. The concept is that apparently its not just what you did, but what the past generations had done before.

    multilevel inheritance - phenotypical changes in animals, such as the yellow fur and weight of the agouti mouse, that are due to changes in regions located outside the genetic code. Apparently one can sort of experiment with the genetics of an animal and reroute the outcome of their offspring's phenotypes. i have absolutely no idea what the mercury lamp and antibiotic thing have to do with this. could you explain more clearly tomorrow?

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  5. Leah Schwartz P.2 H.bio
    Evolvability - a cautiously breached subject in the begging of this article, as well as the augmentation of previously accepted theories, such as the so called “modern synthesis” though in this day and age it no longer is, as well as the good OLD Darwinian Theory. Both were revolutionary in their times, but now, while still are to an extent accurate they no longer cover all of the information that has allowed us to change the surface of science today. The newest theory, of which they call an extension on the two elder theories; seems to be saying that depending on the population density you will have more or less genetic variation from generation to generation.
    Facilitated Variation- it seems to be an attempt to describe the relationships between two closely related yet wholly different things genotype and phenotype. It also seems to be explaining that within a controlled environment Natural Selection (another Darwin theory) would take over and the best fit would take over and eventually the species would seemingly adapt…or become to an extent a completely different species after if say, a few hundred years were to pass.
    Multilevel inheritance- It seems to be that the things most important in this section was Epigentic, because it is clearly stated that two genetically IDENTICAL organisms with different conditions would adapt, not in the DNA so much, but in the epigenetic. The article does not really describe exactly what this is, however it does say “You’re not only what you eat, but what your parents ate, and potentially what your grandparents ate,” Jirtle says. Which relates to the idea that the healthier your parents/ancestry was the better off you will be in the long run.
    (I was not completely sure exactly what I was supposed to do… hope it works)

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  6. Evolvability, simply put, is the ability to evolve or to produce heritable, phenotypic variation. I think that evolvability is absolute. Between generations of species, there is without a doubt variation, meaning that they have very different phenotypes. Modern synthesis does not treat evolvability as a distinct trait of genetically varying populations, nor does it adequately conceptualize major evolutionary milestones. Michael Lynch says that if you stree an organism, it does weird things.This is why you should be careful where your beef comes from.

    Facilitated variation is a simple way to refer to a complex set of physical and chemical forces that can affect structures and functions in a way that goes beyond simple translation. It was not featured prominently in Modern Synthesis. Such as in the beaks of the birds in the experiment mentioned, such quick adaptions could only occur if more was in play then just random mutation. Alexander Badyaev's experiment gives evidence that some phenotypes are affected also by the environment which they are forced to adapt to.

    Multilevel inheritance describes passing on phenotypic changes to subsequent generations in ways that lie outside the genetic code of DNA. Science did not have a clear concept of the molecular side of genetic inheritance while forming the Modern Synthesis, they believed genes were the primary units of inheritance. The yellow agouti mouse owe their apearance to epigenetics, because a epigenetic modification that removes methyl groups from the normally methylated agouti gene. When this occurs shortly after fetus fertalization, the mouse genetic code remains unchanged from other mice, but it will exhibit the yellow fur and high-weight phenotype. This can get very dangerous!

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  7. Yasmin Ali HBIO Pd. 7February 2, 2010 at 3:47 PM

    Evolvability is an organism’s capacity to generate heritable phenotypic variation. Some species can evolve faster than others. Therefore, they have totally different phenotypes. Basically what the article is trying to say is that populations with a larger genetic variation can evolve quicker.

    Facilitated variation is the relations between the genotype and phenotype. For example, when an animal enters a new environment, it develops a physical adaptation in which it helps it survive, like the finch experiment. The bird developed a new shape of its beak which helped it adapt and survive.

    Multilevel inheritance is talking about something called "epigenetic inheritance." This is when elements (such as a chromatin structure) can be passed down from the parent to the offspring, without changing the sequence of the inherited genome. An example is the agouti mouse in the article. Epigenetic changes are what causes the change in the fur (the fur became more yellow) and the weight (the mouse was larger than the genetically identical mouse).

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  8. Evolvability is the ability to evolve or change. A population that has greater variations is more likely to evolve faster than one who has less variations. In terms of modern synthesis which only adresses evolvability in a genetic sense, most researchers argue that it is lacking. This is due to the fact that these researchers who study evolvability argue that evolvability can evolve.

    Fascilitated variation is how physical and chemical forces can affect structure and function. Some argue that fascilitated variation can help species evolve quicker than random mutations. Take the southern Finches for example. When they migrated northward, their beaks changed at an alarmingly fast. Only within 15 generations their beaks changed to suit their new environment better.

    Multilevel inheritance describes changes that lie outside of the genetic code of DNA such as chromatin structure, remodeled histone proteins, or methylated DNA. They may be mediated by the environment or outside factors but the modification can be passed from parent to offspring without changing the sequence of the inherited genome.

    Itzel Castillo
    P.2

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  9. Clarissa Trabanino
    p.7

    Evolvability- I feel that evolvibility can cause great controversary because it has many variables to be taken into consideration. For instance if an animals ability to evolve depends on the variation of it's generic material then the theory of evolution would come into conflict with this. If in the theory of evolution, humans evolved from a miniscule organism to later an ape then homanid it would make no sense that a fish let's say that has less genetic variation than a human be able to evolve into one.
    Additionally, what if the beneficial mutations that allow organisms to evolve aren't possible in the amount necessary to make a new species, then would there be any evolution at all?


    Facilitated Variation- The theory of facilitated variatiom adresses re nature and function of variation in evolution. I think that gene flow,genetic drift and mutations have been studied thoroughly because it helps describe mechanism variation and how a complex biological system can arise with few genetic variation and I believe that this is a perfect example of how evolvibility can be contracdicted. It also shows the relationship between phenotype and genotype, for instance does the environment affect the phenotype of an organism the same way it affects the genotype.

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  10. Yurimar Jaen Period.4

    Evolvability-It is the capability of an organism to produce heritable genetic variation.The article states that some geneology's can change or evolve quicker than other populations,that because of their genetic variation they can make phenotypic variation happen quicker.And the reason for the modern synthesis lacking is because it does not consider that evolvability may be a trait of that population.And is apart from the genetic variation of the population.

    Facilitated Variation-According to Randy Jirtle "You're not only what you eat,but what you're parents ate,and potentially what your grandparents ate".Facilitated variation is when physical and chemical forces can create developmental changes and change structure and functon.These changes trigger evolutionary change faster than random mutations.Alex Badyev's experiment demonstrates that the finches adapted to their new enviroment and that the result,their beak shape,was not a mutation but rather that their enviroment had a role to play in their adaptation,selection later decided which beaks were better and which were not.

    Multilevel inheritance-Multilevel inheritance is passing on changes that you can see to the next generation without changing the genetic code.Epigenetic inheritance is where things such as chromatin structure,usually things that are affected by enviromental factors are passed from one generation to the next without changing the sequence of the inherited genome.

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  11. Avalon Hoek Spaans Pd.7February 2, 2010 at 4:50 PM

    The evolutionary theory started off with Darwin but now it is time for that theory to evolve. Evolvability produces genetic variation among organisms. Some organisms can evolve faster than others. Although modern synthesis states that there is more genetic variation populations causing them to adapt and evolve faster, I think there should be more research done on this. There is also the concept that many organisms evolve because of the stress that they are under.

    Facilitated variation helps explain evolution due to chemical and physical processes that organisms go through during development.
    The finch experiment proved that the changes are not random mutations but really important adaptations. The finches beak shape changed in each generation because of what the previous generations had eaten. The new generation of finches developed beaks that would make getting food easier for what the previous generations ate. Which is why you commented “what to expect when you are expecting – a grandparents guide”. The organism would adapt depending on the lifestyle on the previous generation.

    Multilevel inheritance suggests thats phenotypical changes can occur without changing the genetic sequence. The environment organisms are exposed to and also the things organism eat can affect their offspring and their offspring's offspring. When you said " I am getting my own carry-on mercury lamp and not taking antibiotics again in my entire life" you referred to that fact that any medicine that you take has side effects that could effect your offspring or your offspring's offspring.

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  12. Brooke Lombardi
    Period 2

    1. evolvability – A misfold in Sup35 protein, [PSI+], makes it so it does not help recognize stop codons in mRNA. This means that the mRNA may stick around longer which enables the cells to create more protein. According to 'The Scientist', "These cells end up expressing a wide variety of phenotypes that essentially can’t arise in normal cells. " These proteins could be the same proteins in the beef that you eat.
    2. facilitated variation – Physical and chemical forces that affect structures and functions on one-to-one (genome-to-phenotype). The rapid change of the beak in the bird meant that the beak had changed to quickly to just be random mutation. The concept is now based on previous generations not just on what you did (i.e. based on what your grandparents).
    3. multilevel inheritance – I'm not so sure what the antibiotics and mercury lamp have to due with this but...Yellow agouti mice owe their appearance to epigenetics. As a developing mouse fetus, it inherits the yellow fur and high-weight phenotype along with a having a higher risk of cancer and diabetes. No matter what the mice might try to do to keep their baby healthy while it is still a fetus, the fetus will still inherit these phenotypes. Phenotypic changes can be passed on through cell division and mating. “You’re not only what you eat, but what your parents ate, and potentially what your grandparents ate,” Jirtle says.

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  13. Jan Ileto
    P.2

    Evolvability- Evolvability is the ability to evolve or produce heritable, phenotypic variation. The most recent "version" of the evolution theory is the Modern Synthesis. As the article says, it is the bringing of Darwin's idea into the 20th century and marrying it to the gene's-eyed view of biology that was emerging at the star of the century. Modern Synthesis addresses evolvability by saying that some populations have more gentic variation than others and as a result generate phenotypic variation at a faster rate. One problem, the Modern Synthesis doesn't treat evolvability as a distinct trait, as aid in the article. And to add to the lacking of Modern Synthesis, Wagner states that it fails to conceptualiza the major milestones of evolution. He bluntly states that evolution is not a simple one-dimensional notion of a phenotype.

    Facilitated variation refers to the physical and chemical forces that come into play during development, that can affect sturctures and functions in a way that goes beyond genome-to phenotype translation. Also, the article states, facilitation can intiate quicker evolutionary change that would result from random mutations, because developmental changes can create additional phenotypes in which selection can act. So evolution has become much more complex than random genetic mutations. Calling your GNC and getting the grandparent's guide only refers to Jirtle's quote "You're not only what you eat, but what your parents ate and potentially what your grandparents ate. This is in reference to a experiment done with finch popultaions. The finches were in new habitats. Later on, young finches began feeding on foods found in the habitat, then only can selection determine which beak was suited for the environment.

    Multi-level Inheritance- is passing on phenotypic changes to subsequent generations in ways that lie outside the genetic code of DNA. Apparently [henotypic changes can be passed down to offspring without messing with the genetic code of DNA.

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  14. Katy Haralson
    pd. 4

    Evolvability is a concept that tries to measure an organism's ability to evolve. Charles Darwin identified "natural" variation in inheritable characteristics between members of a species population as essential to the evolution process. Darwin believed that biological inheritance was an analogue, continuously variable process.

    Facilitated variation is a simple way to refer to a complex set of physical and chemical forces, usually coming into play during development, that can affect structures and functions in a way that goes beyond simple, one-to-one translation. Facilitated variation may also spark quicker evolutionary change that would result in mutations.

    Multilevel inheritance describes passing on phenotypic changes to subsequent generations in ways that lie outside the genetic code of DNA.

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  15. Sara Khan P.4 :)

    Careful where your beef can from...

    Cattle can get mad cow disease. If you eat the beef from a cow with mad cow, you can develop Crutchfeld-Jakobs Syndrome (which my great aunt had) Cattle that are affected by mad cow can spread it to other cows. Then all the cows in that area get amd cow, and you cant eat the beef from that area.

    CAll your GNC...

    Facilitated variation tries to help people understand the relations between the genotype and the phenotype. in Alexander Badyaev’s study of the house finch an adaption couldnt be the reason for mutations. Natural selection is only important after these finches were born.

    playing with scarier-than-ever eugenics...

    Multilevel inheritance shows changes that can be seen in an animal because of changes in areas outside of the genetic code of DNA. When methyl was removed from yellow agouti mouse , their fur become yellow and the had the weight gaining phenotype.

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  16. Minh Nguyen
    P.4
    Evolvability- Evolvability is the ability of a species to develope and produce a variety of varation it it phenotype. Evolvability explain how some species have an easier time evolving and adpating to the environment than other. The Mordern synthesis conclude that with many variation in species, that species would have a higher chance of generating phenotype variation. The comment you put ( watch where your beef came from...) it impossible to know where that beef have came from, their alot of company that produce beef product with symbolize their variation of choice you can choose for your beef product and the company that more well know would have a higher consumer in it product.

    Facilitated Variation- Faciliated Variation explain that physcial and chemical process that effect an organism during it development in it mother womb or an egg. Since Faciliated Variation give a physical apperence to the organim, a single mutation can create another evolutionary change in a species. One cause of faciliated variation is the environment like the song bird new home. The other cause is nutrient you get for your surronding enviroment. Since we have a great intellengence, we can transport our food around the world, we not really sure where the food came from or did it get effected by something during is process and what other nutrient came from the food we ate. Your comment about getting a what to expect when your a grandparent is interesting, but you can't really know how to solve a genetic mutation if their is a mutation during the action of faciliated variation and now your grandchild have blue poka dot for skin pigment with a third eye on the left ear.

    Multilevel Inheritance- Mutilevel Inheritance is process that passing one phenotype to another without changing a DNA sequnece. To me this is like a microevolution but just in a small scale and their no disruption genetic code of DNA. These Multilevel Inheritance is cause by the adaptation to the environment and passing on to you. Even with an identical counterpart, their also a small difference in them, like the mouse shown in the picture. These modification came into effected after the ferilization process, so there is no genetic factor that can affect the organism development but rather the parent like what the mother ate and what nutrient give to the baby. Your comment to eugenic is true, because now their sperm bank and the mother allow to pick the father genes and all that, rather than on a random chance like other low intelligent life form. The sperm bank provide the perfect example of eugenic. Even though plasmid is every where their some plasmid that came be helpful some where down the road like 50 or 60 years from now where the an epidemic and people with the plasmid is not affected by the disease. Even with the carry on personal mercury lamp to destroy plasmid, you can still have a posssiblity of getting a plasmid becauyse of not taking your antibotic. These plasmid can also contibuted to the multilevel inheritance because it could affect the mother and aslo affect the fetus she having.

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  17. Keanu Tavares
    Period 2

    1) In brisk terms, evolvability is a concept in evolutionary biology that tries to measure an organisms ability to evolve. This basically means that through a population with high evolvability, persay, gentic variation can be generated and allow evolution through natural selection to take place. Although I do not know exactly how evolvability will be actually measured whether it be subjective scales or whatever it may be, this theory seems to make sense.

    2)This theory concerns the means by which organisms phenotypic variation from genetic change. Facilitated variation is an effort to illustrate complex biological systems can arise with a limited number of genes, and a limited number of variation mechansims such as genetic drift or flow. I think that it is pretty interesting that the genomes of organisms can accumulate of stored memory of past adaptations to help with adjusting to their environment in future terms.

    3)Multilevel inheritance is the enhancement of the concept of inheritance. When a sub class is derived form a derived class then this system is known as the multilevel inheritance. The derived class is called the subclass or child's class for it's parents class and this parent class works as the child class for it's just above class. How classy? This process can up to any number of level.

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  18. Elizabeth GonzalezFebruary 2, 2010 at 5:44 PM

    Elizabeth Gonzalez
    Period 4
    1. evolvability – Evolvability is the ability of species to create variation. Populations with more genetic variation will have a faster rate of evolvability. Modern Synthesis lacks "adequately conceptualize the major evolutionary milestones." Susan Lindquist states that the reason evolvability has different rates per population is because of PSI+ which sereves as a "conduit" for the evolution of different traits.

    2. facilitated variation – Facilitated Variation addresses to sets of "physical and chemical forces that can affect the development of structures and functions". Badyaev tracked house finches through 19 generations and found that the population was developing rare beak morphologies as an adaptation to their new environment rapidly. Modern Synthesis states that beaks changed shape through mutations in the phenotypic pools. Interacting primary processes result in a much greater primary level of variations in phenotypes than the prediction of variations in genotypes would be.

    3. multilevel inheritance – The passing of phenotypic changes in successive generations in ways outside the genetic code of DNA is multilevel inheritance. Chromatin structure, remodeled histones, proteins, or methylated DNA are examples of multilevel inheritance; in which they can be passed from parent to offspring without the change of inherited genome's sequence.

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  19. Shadi Rohani
    Period 4
    02-02-2010
    Evolvability is basically the capacity to evolve, it is defined as the ability of a population of organisms to generate genetic diversity and evolve through natural selection. Modern Synthesis is known for its codification of the evolutionary theory. The publication of Evolution: The Modern Synthesis modernized Darwin’s theories and ideas with the knowledge of today’s biology. Darwin based his origin of species theory on heritable variation and natural selection, although he conceded that “our ignorance of the laws of variation is profound”. Modern Synthesis prioritizes on evolvability, they refer to it in a population genetic sense which fails to present autonomy on underlying genetic variation; evolvability isn’t addressed as an individual trait of those populaces.
    Facilitated Variation summarizes the reference to a complex set of physical and chemical forces that affect structures and functions in a way that goes beyond simple translation. This theory mainly involves which animals generate phenotypic variation from genetic change. Facilitated variation may also generate faster evolutionary transformation than would result from random mutations, due to the fact that developmental changes can create additional phenotypes upon which selection can act. It is a new theory that has been presented by Marc W. Kirschner, a professor and chair at the Department of Systems Biology, Harvard Medical School, and John C. Gerhart, a professor at the Graduate School, University of California, and Berkeley. The theory of facilitated variation is an effort to illustrate that seemingly complex biological systems can arise with a limited number of genes, and a limited number of variation mechanisms.
    Multilevel Inheritance is the enhancement of the concept of inheritance. It describes passing on phenotypic changes to succeeding generations in ways that lie outside the genetic code of DNA. Most important among these modes is epigenetic inheritance, where elements such as chromatin structure, remodeled histone proteins, or methylated DNA can be passed from parent to offspring without changing the actual sequence of the inherited genome. Again Modern Synthesis failed to create a clear concept of the molecular mechanics riveted in genetic inheritances, they believed, at the time that genes were the primary units of inheritance.

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  20. Danielle Keeler (period 2)February 2, 2010 at 5:58 PM

    Danielle Keeler
    Period 2
    This article certainly does not throw down evolution it simply suggests there should be modifications to these group of theory.

    Evolvability - Not all populations evolve in the same span of time. Some take much longer than others, or in other words, the genetic variation is different. Modern synthesis fails to address important foundations in evolution, like flight and photosynthesis. Modern Synthesis really isn't as simple as a couple of concepts. Michael Lynch said that if you stress out an animal too much, it would do weird things hence the statement "careful where your beef came from"...Hopefully, that cow you're munching on, in that delicious burger, wasn't stressed too much.

    Facilitated Variation -It's not just the "genome to phenotype" translation anymore (things haven't changed just more information was collected). Suddenly, "You’re not only what you eat, but what your parents ate, and potentially what your grandparents ate" says Randy Jirtle. The "what to expect when you're expecting- a grandparents guide" refers to the thought that you should be careful in what you do/eat because your grandchildren might be affected. Now physical and chemical forces are at work effecting in the development of organisms.

    Multilevel Inheritance - (Had a little trouble with this one) From what I understand, multilevel inheritance are traits passed on within the generation to the offspring without changing the genome. I'm guessing you would not want risk passing on a harmful effect from modern antibiotics to your children so, carrying a mercury lamp will fend off any harmful bacteria.

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  21. Augusto Ramirez
    Period 7

    Evolvability is the capability and ability of a population of organisms to generate genetic diversity and evolve through natural selection (Producing heritable, phenotypic variation). Some populations being more evolvable than others, will tend to “phenotypically” change faster than less evolvable population with a lower genetic variation. The Modern Synthesis addresses evolvability but it does not treat evolvability as a distinct trait of the population, treating it as an extensive broad element. The Modern Synthesis (Which really isn't so "modern" today), also called Evolutionary Synthesis fails to appropriately conceptualize the major evolutionary milestones like photosynthesis, flight, multicellularity, etc.

    Facilitated Variation is the way complex relations between the physical and chemical forces in genotype and phenotype. Which is important during development and can affect the structure and functions in a more complicated way. It can also produce a quicker evolutionary change that would be the product of random mutations. It answers how changes in the genotype translated to changes in the phenotype. Modern Synthesis does not really completely feature Facilitated Variation or the intricacies of developmental science. Alexander Badyaev's experimentation with the finches showed that the quick beak adaptation was not just a cause of random mutations of the phenotypes but an adaptation to the surrounding environment the finches or any other organism are living in. An added concept to this is also that the things past generations have done affect the organism and their offspring; I'm guessing that's why the grandparents are mentioned in the comment.

    Multilevel Inheritance is the passing of phenotypic changes to subsequent generations to areas outside of the genetic code of DNA. Elements can be passed from the parent to the offspring without changing the existing sequence of the genome (Epigenetic Inheritance). Modern Synthesis was completely lacking Multilevel Inheritance because science did not yet have a clear understanding of the molecular mechanics in genetic inheritance.

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  22. Evolvability in a nut shell means being able to evolve, or being able to develop by a process of evolution to an adaptive state or condition. Evolvability allows certain populations to have a greater genetic variation and dramatically different phenotypes; as you saw in the yeast, they were all circular yet in the center they had different patterns such as lines ranging in size or just a circular flat bottom.

    Facilitated variation refers to changes caused by physical and chemical forces during development that affect structures and functions. These variations are later chosen to remain through natural selection.

    Multilevel inheritance is the description of how phenotypical changes are passed on to the following generations without interfering with the DNA sequence. Changes in chromatin, metilation of DNA or changes on the histone can cause different genetic phenotypes.

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  23. Jose Londono Period 4

    Evolvability can be described in brief to be the ability to evolve or produce heritable, phenotypic variation. Considering that, the theory of Modern Synthesis, in many a biologists' eye, falls short on providing a satisfying explanation for some of the most intriguing questions in the field of biology. Modern Synthesis simply seems too one-dimensional anf inadequate for many. In any case, evolvability in itself is more than accounted for, scientifically that is. Tests involving PSI clearly demonstrate the behaviours of evolvability.

    Facilitated variation is a general term for a myriad of factors that come into play during development that can affect the structure and function (of the organism in question) in a profound manner. In this field, 'Modern' synthesis seems to fall short simply on account of its age as a theory. Further understanding of how genetics works, for example, has forced a reassessment of the way genotypes and phenotypes behave, and has thus rendered Modern synthesis rather passé.

    Multilevel inheritance simply points out that there are factors outside of genes and DNA that play a factor in the development of oranisms; environmental factors can have take a role too. Thus, the fundamental assumption of Modern Synthesis that genes and genes alone are the primary factor in inheritance is flawed. Though this isn't to the composers of modern synthesis' fault, however, as we've only just now begun to see the different factors that can affet inheritance and the passing on of traits.

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  24. Daniela Muino Per.4

    As described simply by the article at first, evolvability is simply the ability to evolve or produce phenotypic differences. Different phenotypes may appear more quickly in some lineages than in others,because scientists believe that some lineages are more evolvable than others.
    One comment by a biologist named Michael Lynch in the article really caught my attention:“It’s an observation that if you stress the
    hell out of an organism, it does weird things,” he said. “There’s no question you get more extreme phenotypes than you would in a benign environment. But there’s no evidence whatsoever that the tendency for organisms to do this
    kind of thing when they’re stressed is there because natural selection favored it.”
    So all these stressed out kids should take yoga, because if not, they'll all evolve into "weird things" that will never stop freaking out over grades.

    Facilitated variation as described in the article as a simple way to refer to a complicated set of physical and chemical forces, that may affect the structures and functions during the development of an organism. The reason a someone would want to see the gradparent's guide is because the physical and chemcial forces may change our genotype, thus changing the genotype of our future grandchildren. So be careful what you do now, for it may affect your children and grandchildren genetically in the future.

    These truly are messing with scary epigenetics. Just to think that a mouse's appearance can change that drastically by just by removing the methyl from the DNA, imagine what else you could do to it without even laying a finger on its genetic code!
    Forget about that, imagine what you could do to PEOPLE. You could choose what your child could look like. What would that eventually lead to?

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  25. Ana Mifsud
    P.7

    Evolvability seems to make sense to me.
    There are animals that have barely changed since their ancient ancestor such as the Crocodile who are very similar to its prehistoric ancestor. Yet there are those animals that have, over the centuries, evolved to adapt to their surroundings such as camels or giraffes.

    Facilitated variation is most likely the most rapid way of evolution. I agree that if these facilitated variations occur in humans we might be seeing mutations or "adaptions" among the human spices therefor the need for a new : "what to expect when your expecting " book . Maybe we will be seeing babies born with tougher skin to protect themselves from harmful UV radiation due to ozone depletion.

    multilevel inheritance: I have been told that the more you learn the more you learn that you don't know much at all. This multilevel inheritance is a perfect example. I use to think DNA is the factor of inheritance in an organism but now i hear that their are other factors that can be playing into adaptations of organism... definitely something to think about.

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  26. Armand Shoon
    per. 2

    Evolvability- an organism’s capacity to generate heritable phenotypic variation.

    Facilitated variation- a theory that concerns with the means by which animals generate phenotypic variation from genetic change.

    multilevel inheritance- this is all i found for this (When a subclass is derived from a derived class then this mechanism is known as the multilevel inheritance.) -http://www.roseindia.net/java/language/inheritance.shtml

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  27. Evolvibility is the ability to change the traits that are passed on to offspring. Some of the lineages in genes are said to be more evolvable than others, meaning that they can evolve faster than other genes. They can change their entire phenotype even. "Game changers" as Wagner puts it, appear in the lineages causing the genes to evolve faster.

    Facilated Variation is a simpler way to refer to the chemical and physical forces that can come into developement. It can affect genome to phenotype translations.

    Multilevel inheritence is the passing on of the genes without changing the genetic order. These changes lie outside of the genetic code. They are passed from parents to offspring. They can change elements such as shape, chromatoin structure, remodeled histone proteins and methylated DNA.

    Luz Ramirez
    period 2

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  28. MICHELOT M.
    PER 2 OCHATT




    Evolvability is no way shape or form fallible. Evolvability being so important in the fact that it is sometimes crucial to the very survival of specific species of animals. It is almost impossible to actually pin point the very mutations that can lead to a beneficial adaptation. But no matter how you slice it, the greater population will always have a greater number of mutations. The more mutations and random genetic variations there are the better the chance there is of some type of trait being acquired that will benefit the population. And as we've seen time and time again, the trait that can best allow the species to survive and reproduce is what will be passed on and altered in the population.

    Facilitated variation goes on a much deeper and complex level then just mere random adaptations. It describe that there is something else that affects the variation of certain species. When a fetus is at its embryonic stage, some type of difference in DNA contributed to changes that have not yet been proved to even be beneficial to the population. Therefore chemical changes must have come into play somehow! Stroke of luck-- i think not.

    Multilevel Inheritance
    I dont completely understand how this can be. From my understanding DNA contributes to all the changes and structures of all living things. Therefore the epigenetics (hence epi- meaning out), that contributed to the change must have come from some other outside source. I believe that the mercury lamp, can in someway transmit radiation waves that possibly can effect the cells on a multicellular level. For Example, when scientists are exposed to high levels of radiation for long periods of time, cancer cells may form! In that same sense maybe a change/mutation in the cells may be to blame!

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  29. Carolina G.
    Period 4

    Evolvability: Are the hormones that we are injecting and incorporating into our cattle somehow affecting them? What is their evolvability? I would assume that it is quite rapid (since we've been able to alter the animal greatly), although not as rapid as man's best friend, the dog.
    It is quite interesting that this debate has come up, since it gives a whole new dimension to the science of biology. Some species certainly do have more of an 'evolvabiliy' chance incorporated within their genes. It ties up pretty nicely with 'survival of the fittest', this time, it's just on a bigger scale. (Whole species, not just variant individuals of a species)

    Facilitated Variation:

    This could definitely be the reason why diversity is all around us. (Why there are birds of the same species with markings in their feathers, ect.

    How does facilitated variation play a role in us as humans? Does one culture have more advantage over another based on their location and how they have quickly adapted to suit their needs in their home? Will we (if we ignore the impending doom of the innumerable dangers that loom near) one day wake up to find one culture superior to the rest due to this theory?
    -Discarded. There is too much diffusion in the cultures and its peoples all throughout the world to really make an impact.

    Multilevel Inheritance- By far the most fascinating theory. There might actually be able to be factors that we could find and manipulate within ourselves to help our future generations without really touching our DNA. Maybe we could see how we could treat disease without really getting into the controversial subject of tempering with our DNA. For all we know, it could lead to our demise. DNA is vast and very detailed. One mistake with a codon could put the future human in great peril. If we could somehow find a different way to manipulate our future generations, not only would we be helping save ourselves from a future with World Countries trying to make the perfect human 'fighting race', but we could also help change the future of our children through methods that are less expensive.

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  30. Kevin Winslow
    Period 4

    Evolvability is simply the ability to evolve or produce variation in a specie's phenotype. Organisms tend to have higher rates of evolvability when the population of those organisms have more variations. Susan Lindquist says that [PSI+], a prion that results from the misfolding of a protein in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, may serve as the main cause for evolvability.

    Facilitated variation is understood as a set of physical and chemical changes that occur in an organism's development. Facilitated variation may also cause faster evolutionary change than would be caused random mutations, which would result in a quicker way of evolution. Facilitated variation greatly changes a species of organism, but eventually natural selection chooses which characteristics are more suitable for the environment the species resides in.

    Multilevel inheritance is the ability of an organism to pass a trait onto the next generation without having to change the sequence of the inherited genome. An example would include how chromatin structure is passed from parent to offspring without changing the genome. This inheritance, however, goes against the belief that genes are the primary units of inheritance.

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  31. Evelyn Gonzalez
    Period 4
    Evolvability is basically defined as the ability to evolve through natural selection. The article explains how the Modern Synthesis explains the reasons of evolution is due to variation due to changes in gene frequencies induced mostly by natural selection. Though Modern Synthesis fails restating the major evolutionary milestones that stand out, it still provides concepts of biology that wouldn't have been found without the technology we have now.

    Facilitated variation in simpler terms refers to a complex set of physical and chemical forces that can affect structures and functions in a way that goes beyond the simple, genome-to-phenotype translation. A species entering a new environment seems to go under certain physical adaptions in order to survive in their surronding environment.

    Multilevel inheritance describes the passing on phenotypic changes to consecutive generations in ways that lie outside DNA's genetic code. The sequence of the inherited genome can be passed down to the offspring with undergoing change.

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  32. Evolvability- Evolvability is the change from generation to generation in a species. All species go through evolution and it is part of life. In the article, Modern Synthesis is explained to be some what part of Darwin's theory. (Mondern Synthesis addresses evolution as a factor.) Also, the article explains that some species change quicker than other ones.

    Facilitated variation- Facilitated variation is the fast change that occurs for a species (could be by mutation or surrounding environment.) For example, in the article the birds changed the shape of their beak to be better suited in their new environment. The change occured so quickly that mutation, which happen randomly, could not be responsible for it.

    Multilevel inheritance- In multilevel inheritance,traits can pass from one generation to another without changing the genome's sequence. (Like the yellow fur and weight of the agouti mouse.)

    -Victoria T.
    period 2

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  33. Joanna Zhang
    Period 4

    Evolvability measures the ability that a phenotypic variation can occur in any organism. It shows how some organisms are more susceptible to evolve quicker than others. The concept itself is needed because Modern Synthesis does not attribute evolvability as an trait independent of genetic variation. In many ways evolvability is undeniable because it explains many of the "major evolutionary milestones" such as flight and photosynthesis.

    Facilitated Variation goes beyond the genome-to-phenotype translation into something that is a more complex set of physical and chemical forces. It has the probability of causing quicker evolution because it generates additional phenotypes to select from. A scenario which describes the rapid adaptation of a house finches beak is given. The change could not have resulted from a random mutation, rather "interacting embryonic processes result in an initial level of phenotypic variation greater than what would be predicted from underlying genotypic variation alone."

    Mulitilevel Inheritance is an enhancement of the concept of inheritance. It describes the passing on of certain traits that lie outside the genetic code of DNA onto progeny. Epigenetic inheritance is just one example. "You’re not only what you eat, but what your parents ate, and potentially what your grandparents ate,” states Jirtle. Perhaps multilevel inheritance sort of function like plasmids? Then you might want to bring your mercury lamp and zap all the traits you don't want to pass on to your children.

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  34. Alejandro Blanco /// Period #2

    Evolvability, or the ability to evolve, is generally described in the article to be a more accepted term in the science world. When it comes to Modern Synthesis, evolvability is explained by stating that some populations have more genetic variation than others and how this population is expected to produce phenotypic variation at a faster rate. A fault in Modern Synthesis is the ability to explain important evolutionary "milestones" such as Photosynthesis and flight. Wagner states, "you can’t get away anymore with a very simple, one-dimensional notion of a phenotype".

    Facilitated variation is a way of explaining the physical and chemical agents that come into play during the development of an organism. Agents such as chemicals in the development stage of an organism that may cause it to have spots or stripes. Facilitated variation was not a large part in the creation of the Modern Synthesis, basically genotypes were supposed to be phenotypes and evolutionary change occurred slowly and was thanks to gradual mutations. Stuart Newman states, “It turns out that in many experimental and natural setups, you find discordance between genotype and phenotype". Another major fault in Modern Synthesis!

    Multilevel inheritance is a way of explaining the passing on of phenotypic changes from parent to offspring by means that lie outside of the genetic code of DNA. In epigenetic inheritance, remodeled histone proteins or methylated DNA can be passed from parent to offspring with altering the actual genome passed down. The Modern Synthesis explains that genes were the primary units of inheritance thought it is stated that its architects did not have a concrete thought of the molecular mechanics involved in genetic inheritance.

    Though some believe that evolutionary theory is in need of expansion others, like Richard Dawkins state, “I don’t think that we need to talk about it as a major movement that’s happening now. It’s happening all the time."

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  35. Evolvability is the ability to evolve or to produce heritable, phenotypic variation. Meaning that some species are evolving faster than others, therefore having great variation of different phenotypes. Knowing what you are actually eating describes “ watch where your beef comes from”.

    Facilitated variation refers to the complex set of physical and chemical forces during development, that change the outcome of the relations genotype and phenotype. Facilitated variation might make evolutionary change faster, which result from random mutations. The Finches’s in the Galapagos islands, adaptation of their beak, couldn’t have happened by random mutation, instead factors from their ancestors, contributed to the change.

    Multilevel inheritance means passing on phenotypic changes to subsequent generations in ways that lie outside of the genetic code of DNA, such as yellow fur in mice and making them larger. But I don’t know what the mercury lamp has to do with this.. how does it have to do with the killing of bacteria? o.0?

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  36. Albert Tacornal P-7


    Evolvability-this section of the article tells us that each species ability to evolve is caled evolvability.Since some populations are more varied in there gene pool they would be expected to create phenotypic variation much fater. The phrase watch where your beef is coming from points out that u should watch out for the way a species has come to the point it is at.

    Facilitated Variation- Is what these scientist use to put in simpiler terms physical and chemical forces. These forces affect structures and functions of genome to phenotype translation. Facilitated variation can also start up faster change. Included in this theroy is that it isnt just up to you but generations in the past.

    multilevel inheritance- This explains the different ways of inheretence that lie outside of the genetic code. Your genetics can be influenced also by the enviorment while in the womb

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  37. Jose Alvarez
    Pd. 7

    Evolvability means the ability to evolve or to produce heritable, phenotypic variation or as the article calls them: “game changers”. Modern Synthesis says that basically populations with more genetic variation generate phenotypic variation at a faster rate. Yet, modern synthesis does not understand or encompass this and is stuck in"one dimensional notation of phenotypes" rather than the multiple phenotype genetic variation.

    Facilitated Variation- The theory of facilitated variation is important because it illustrates that complex biological systems can arise with a limited number of genes, and a limited number of variation mechanisms. Facilitated basically states that what was thought to be random genetic mutations is now a slow process of mutations. According to facilitated variation, an organism is a combination of past generations actions and your current actions. So grandparents food diet affects their grandkids too.

    Multilevel inheritance is the passing on of phenotypic changes to subsequent generations in ways that lie outside the genetic code of DNA. This theory states that DNA and many other "structures" can be passed from parent to offspring without changing the actual sequence of the inherited genome.can be passed from parent to offspring without changing the actual sequence of the inherited genome.

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  38. Lisa Diaz
    Period 4 Biology Honors

    evolvability- Evolvability means to produce phenotypic variation or the ability to evolve. Modern Synthesis states that evolvability in a population's genetics would vary because certain populations have more of a genetic variation than others. The populations with more genetic variation would be expected to have more phenotypic variations, than the others. Wagner believes that Modern Synthesis fails to conceptualize the major evolutionary milestones. Modern Synthesis in my opinion is neither correct or incorrect. Considering the fact that not all populations are fully evolved.

    facilitated variation- Facilitated variation is a set of physical and chemical forces, that are present during the development of the embryo, it can affect the functions and physical traits in complex ways. Researchers have several explanations for facilitated variation. Facilitated variation can also make quicker evolutionary changes than mutations due to the fact that it can create more phenotypes. Facilitated variation is not prominently mentioned in the idea of Modern Synthesis though. Modern Synthesis assumed that genotypes were practically translated into phenotypes, and that genetic mutations were slowly brought about by evolutionary changes. This has been unproven by experiments and natural setups, when there was a discordance between the genotype and phenotype.

    multilevel inheritance- Multilevel Inheritance is basically passing on phenotypic changes to other generations without passing it through DNA. This can happen when there is epigenetic variation in which the elements such as chromatin structure and remodeled histone proteins are often mediated by conditions in the environment and can be passed from parent to offspring without changing the inherited genome. At the time when Modern Synthesis was being constructed scientist did not have a full concept on the mechanics of genetic inheritance and they believed genes were primary units of inheritance . This was disproven when Eva Jablonka held experiments last year and has over 100 published cases of transgenerational epigenetic inheritance.

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  39. Flavio Carvalho
    Period 7

    Evolvability - this is the concept in evolutionary biology that measures an organism's ability to evolve. Evolvability is usually described as the ability of a population of organisms to create genetic diversity and evolve through natural selection. Wagner describes evolvability two different ways. 1)"A biological system is evolvable if its properties show genetic variation and if natural selection can change these properties, and 2) A biological system is evolvable if it can acquire novel functions through genetic change."

    Facilitated Variation - it adresses the nature and function of variation in evolution. This is basically an effort to show that complex biological systems can arise with a limited number of genes and variations.

    Mutlilevel Inheritance - this is the "enhancement" of the concept of inheritance. It is how one class derives from a base class or a parent class. For example: Class A is the base for Class B, Class B is the base for Class C. Class B forms the link between A & C. This chain is known as an inheritance path.

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  40. Aneal Sunny
    Period 07

    Evolvability- This is pretty much just the ability to change over time to your enviroment or the ability to change over time. This that animals that change to survive in their enviroment are much evolvability than a person who does no need to fly who could grow wings.

    Facilitated variation- is the way that a change in a organism is put in play. Such as a beak on the bird. IF there was no need for the bird to have a beak then it would not need a beak the bird gained a beak because it needed to break open shells. This trait was then passed down through the parents to the next generations.

    Multilevel inheritance- what I got from this was the fact that the adaptaions that your grandparents of F1 generation got, can be passed down to the F2 generations and not be needed but then it can come up again in the F3 generation and be very helpful.

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  41. Alejandro Santacoloma P.4

    Evolvability- Evolvability is the ability to evolve or produce heritable phenotypic variation. It seems that [PSI+] causes the cell to only read 5 to 10% of stop codons, allowing different proteins be created, furthermore, [PSI+] prion can be passed from mother to daughter cells. This can cause the organism to have a variety of different phenotypes than expected, causing a huge change in the organism, which may or may not be to the advantage of the organism.

    Facilitated Variation- Its a set of complex physical and chemical forces that come around early development, affecting structures and functions of the organism. The creators of modern synthesis could not have imagined what we are doing now in molecular biology, as a result, this section of modern synthesis is dated. Stuart Newman said “It turns out that in many experimental and natural setups, you find discordance between genotype and phenotype,” Modern synthesis was created years ago, before the human genome project and cloning, and other such things, molecular biology has vastly changed since 1942, when Modern synthesis was published.

    Multilevel inheritance-" It describes passing on phenotypic changes to subsequent generations outside of the genetic code of DNA" With the experiments with the plant generations grown in different temperatures, it is concluded that inherited epigenetic factors affecting the flower production are at work in this. With the mice experiment, by altering the nutrition of a pregnant mouse, it can prevent or allow the offspring to develop the phenotype giving them the yellow fur and increased weight.

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  42. Itamar Aminoff P2

    Evolvability is the ability to evolve or produce heritable, phenotypic variation. Populations with a larger genetic variation tend to change much faster than other populations.

    Facilitated variation shows complicated physical and chemical changes that occur during a fetus' growth period.

    Multilevel inheritance consist of elements such as chromatin structure can be passed from parent to offspring without changing the actual sequence of the genome

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  43. Carolina Almoancid
    Period 7

    The ability to evolve or to reproduce is evolvability. It is also phenotypic variation. Modern synthesis is involved in evolvability in the sense of genetic variation in populations. The disadvantage is that it does not treat evolvability as a different trait of those populations

    Facilitated variation is a simple way to show a complex set of physical and chemical forces. It can affect functions that goes beyond genotype-to-phenotype. Oscillation of certain regulatory elements that can affect segmentation in embryos to chemicals acting during development that can give organisms patterns of stripes or spots are mechanisms for facilitated variation. It used to be more simple but when they introduced the EvoDevo field it became more complex.

    Multilevel inheritance describes passing on phenotypic changes to next generation through passages outside the genetic code of DNA. Epigenetic inheritance is where elements like chromatin structure, remodeled histone proteins, or methylated DNAcan be passed from parent to offspring without changing the actual sequence of the inherited genome.

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  44. Evolvability is the ability to evolve. the watch where your beef came from is stating that you should look out for how your beef was made or genetically evolved.

    Facilitated variation explains the relationship and changes between the phenotype and the genotype. A species seems to develop adaptations to the environment. natural selection plays a role in this adaptation.

    multilevel inheritance is the change between organisms of the same species that pass from generation to generation, usually to offspring.
    these changes happen in areas outside of the genetic code.

    william boutinet, 4th period

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  45. Evolvability- Evolvability, taken simply, means the ability to evolve or to produce heritable, phenotypic variation. Some lineages are suspected to be more evolvable than others, meaning that dramatically different phenotypes may arise quicker in these lineages, independent of how much baseline genetic variation is present. Modern Synthesis addresses evolvability within genetics. Like i previously stated, some species may be more evolvable then others therefore they have very different phenotypes.

    Facilitated variation- is a way to refer to a complex set of physical and chemical forces, usually coming into play during development, that can affect structures and functions in a way that goes beyond simple,
    genome-to-phenotype translation. Apparently, the environment or habitat of an animal, especially if it is not suitable for the animal, affect the outcome of the naturally occurring mutations. For example, in the finch experiment, the beak of the bird eventually changed and "mutated" over an extended period of time in order to adapt to its environment.

    Multilevel Inheritance- Multilevel inheritance describes passing on phenotypic changes to subsequent generations in ways that lie outside the genetic code of DNA. It can be passed from parent to offspring without changing the actual sequence of the inherited genome. modern synthesis believed genes were the primary units of inheritance. But the concept was still not clear.

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  46. Annette Vergara
    P.4
    Evolvability is an organism’s capacity to generate heritable phenotypic variation. Biologists have increasingly been asking whether the ability to evolve — the evolvability — of biological systems, itself evolves, and whether this phenomenon is the result of natural selection or a by-product of other evolutionary processes.

    Facillitated variation-this theory is based on organisms being designed in a way that random genetic changes are channeled in phenotypic directions that are potentially useful. Some elements of facilitated variation theory, are weak regulatory linkage, modularity, and reduced pleiotropy of mutations.

    Multilevel Inheritance-- When a subclass is derived from a derived class then this mechanism is known as the multilevel inheritance. The derived class is called the subclass or child class for it's parent class and this parent class works as the child class for it's just above ( parent ) class. Multilevel inheritance can go up to any number of level.

    (mercury lamp?)

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  47. Monserrat Sierra (:
    Period 7.

    evolvability – are the changest that have transformed life over an immense time. The article states that populations with a larger genetic variation tend to change faster than other populations. Also, populations containing some level of genetic variation evolve via changes in gene frequency induced mostly by natural selection.

    facilitated variation – a complex set of physical and chemical forces, usually coming into play during development, that can affect structures and functions. They can spark quicker evolutionary change than would result from random mutations, because developmental changes can create additional phenotypes upon which selection can act

    multilevel inheritance – describes passing on phenotypic changes to subsequent generations in ways that lie outside the genetic code of DNA. “You’re not only what you eat, but what your parents ate, and potentially what your grandparents ate,” Jirtle says. In our textbook, it indicates that antibiotics should be used responsibly. Much like the pesticide resistance, us humans also create an immunity to antibiotics. The antibiotics not only affect our bodies, but also how the bacteria interacts with it. The more it interacts, the more it builds a resistance. Pretty soon, there will be no reason to take antibiotics because you will be wasting your time and money on medicine that has no effect on you. So I believe the mercury lamp is a good precaution to diseases.

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  48. Maria Belen Martinez
    Period 4

    Evolvability refers to a populations genetic diversity and ability for evolution. A clear example of evolvability is shown with the Sup35 protein misfolding.
    In this case, the misfolding of the Sup35 protein brought advantages. This protein misfolding allowed the withstanding of certain conditions that wouldn’t have been withstanded without it. Since this had a positive effect, the misfolding of the Sup35 protein was inherited, and made the yeast population most likely to produce phenotype diversity when the changing of environmental conditions change. These interesting results in the experiment conducted by Susan Lindquist, a molecular biologist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, have created new questions in evolutionary history.

    Facilitated variation refers to the forces, both physical and chemical, that can affect development. Forces such as the environment and the foods a person consume can affect the development of future generations. Facilitated variation can also spark faster evolutionary changes that would result in mutations rather than random mutations. An example would be the experiment conducted with the finch birds. Their beaks were rapidly adapted, too rapidly for it to be a cause of random mutations. Because of this, the scientists turned to facilitated variation as an answer to why these finch birds beaks were being adapted so quickly and efficiently.

    Multilevel inheritance is the passing of phenotypic changes to future generations without having an alteration on the genetic code. In the plants case, multilevel inheritance came in handy when not only surviving but also striving in the hot temperature. Thanks to its ancestors being adapted to the hot weather this third generation plant was able to survive better than the other one with no such ancestory.

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  49. Evolvability- A concept in evolutionary biology that is used to measure an organism's ability to evolve. Evolvability is defined as the ability of a population of organisms to generate genetic diversity and evolve using natural selection.

    Multilevel inheritance- its a mechanism where one clas gets its charasteristics from the previous class (base class) and so on. its like hand-me-downs. (i dont understand the relation to mercury lamps?)

    Facilitated variation- complex biological systems can result with a number of genes and small changes.
    -alexa chaname

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